A feature film is one of the most respected consumer visual texts of modern man, and representatives of the cinema art and the film industry are the most outstanding representatives of the reference groups occupying an important place in the world building (cf. metaphorical transfer of nominations of antique and Christian mythology into modern cinema world: celestials, Olympus, pantheon, goddess, deity, idol, icon, pray, worship, etc.).
Cinema is undoubtedly the quintessence of the modern mass culture main features. Features (even functions) of the modern mass culture are largely seen alone in the names of mass culture theories (an overview of the main theories is presented, e.g., in the works of A.R. Karoyan): Magic bullet theory; Hypodermic needle theory; Accumulation theory; Two-step flow theory; Diffusion of innovation theory; Cultivation media effects theory; Gatekeeping theory; Unintentional news distortion theory; Agenda-setting theory; Uses and gratification theory;Dependency theory.
The film world features constitute separate films, which, in turn, in a separate, isolated form also represent a particular world – both film critic and theorist, and the mass consumer repeat this idea. A language of this unique world is also specific – it is often used the ‘visual language’notation. A concept of visual language is not so metaphorical: it is the language with its grammar (e.g., adunation of film characters into narrative), vocabulary and semantics (e.g., the meaning and use of characters for an idea, symbol, and concept).
The American cinema, often reducible to designate Hollywood becomes a centripetal (“let’s make real Hollywood films”) and simultaneously a centrifugal forces (“let’s make it different from Hollywood”) of the modern world of mass culture. Historically, film-making always characterises by significant financial investment, and it is not surprising that its making – in contrast to , e.g., literature or art – determines the political and economic system, in other words, the art of cinema inevitably enters into a relationship with money and power, and the emergence and dissemination of successful film expression is more than natural. American cinematic texts (wider – cinematic discourse, or even wider – cinematic communication) are a means of understanding the cinema relationship and features, in particular, the border between the American (it is not often and always correctly synonymous with concepts of mass, commercial, actor) and European cinema (equally as often and wrongly equated to independent, intellectual, director’s cinema). The American cinema cannot reflect the characteristics of American culture that have a certain specificity.
The American cinema structured according to certain laws, reflecting the particularities of the film world in general: it has ambiguity and understatement, its uniqueness and ways of typing, metaphorical and associative mechanisms, this is a historically conditioned unity of rational and emotional, real and unreal, aesthetic and commercial, realised, in particular, in successful strategies.
American cinematic texts, secondary in relation to a previous piece of work – remakes, sequels, adaptations – often under attack from the audience (“can’t can come up with anything new, just want to make money”). Although the causes of the secondarity in the cinema, apart from the obvious commercial, are great many: precedent, mythologicality, versatility and thus recognisability of the plot. It should also be stated that cinematic text secondarity could often be linked with the question of the versatility of artistic works in general. Since Aristotle, many researchers have attempted to uncover the types of plots, e.g., the K. Jung’s archetypes, the V. Propp’s elements of a fairy tale story frames, 4 universal plots by Jorge Luis Borges (Besieged City, Return, Search, God’sSuicide). An English poet and mythologist Robert Graves suggested seven basic plots – Cinderella, Achilles, Faust, Tristan, Circe, Romeo and Juliet, Orpheus; Christopher Booker suggested seven universal plots (From Rags to Riches, Adventure, Return, Comedy, Tragedy, Resurrection, Victory over the Monster ), and Georges Polti suggested 36 universal plots (Supplication, Salvation, Revenge For Crime, Revenge for Loved, Pursued, Sudden Disaster, Sacrifice, Rout, Bold Attempt , Abduction, Riddle , Achievement, Hate to Loved, Rivalry Between Relatives, Adultery and Murder, Madness, Fatal Indiscretion, Love Crime From Ignorance, Loved Murder from Ignorance, Self-sacrifice for Sake of Ideal, Self-sacrifice for Sake of Loved Ones, Sacrifice for Sake of Passion, Loved Sacrifice for Sake of Necessity, Unequal Rivalry, Adultery, Love Crime, Loved Dishonour Disclosure, Love Impediment, Love of Enemies, Ambition and Lust for Power, Struggle with God, Unconscious Jealousy / Envy, Miscarriage, Remorse, Lost and Found , Loss of Loved).
Generally speaking, virtually in every film one can see something “former” – the character or story, inspired by real events in politics (e.g., films about political elections, about Watergate), economics (e.g., films about the economic crisis), sports (e.g., biopics about athletes), culture (e.g., the history of works of art), etc. However, the actual situation, its description using means, e.g., of artistic expression in literature and its description by means of cinematic language – the essence of the phenomenon, the comparison of which may not always be on a simple reason – a reflection of the fact and the linearity of the relationship. It’s not quite acceptable basis for comparison of the literary source and its film adaptation. Relationship of sequels and remakes also cannot be considered simply linear.
Cinema belongs to the objects of research, which can be studied both from different positions (sciences) and different points of reference: from the standpoint of structuralism, semiotics, psychoanalysis and behaviourism, theories of gender, feminism and queer. Moreover, the cinema places greater emphasis on philosophy, history, culture, aesthetics, ethics, and even the environment. Nevertheless, the modern Russian and Latvian linguistics, cognitive linguistics and the theory and practice of translation system did not pay attention to the object in question in the article: one can mention only some of the individual and fragmentary works in the matter of question that interests us.
Modern theory and practice of translation unevenly distributes its attention: a large, if not dominant role, plays the literary translation studies, and applied areas are less developed, including the theory and practice of translating feature films. Relevance of this study lies in the fact that this work begins to fill both theoretical and practical gap in the literature and cinematic texts and tactics of translation and suggests the classification of adaptation communication strategy, which, in turn, is the novelty of the research.
This study focuses on the comparative analysis of the titles of feature films produced in the USA and their translation into Latvian and Russian languages, and served as the main method of comparative study was the cognitive discourse analysis, which includes elements of the component analysis, stylistic and other calculations, and, of course, introspection. The main objective of the study is to analyse the titles of feature films (produced in the USA in 1991-2010) and their translation into Latvian and Russian languages to establish implementation of adaptation communication strategy – the systems of communication strategies and communication moves implementing them. Results of the analysis reflected in my monographic study “Cinematic Text and Translation” (published by Lambert, 2014). The comparative analysis involved 312 titles of adaptations, including 27 absolute precedent titles, 91 full precedent titles, 37 inverse precedent titles and 157 potential precedent titles; b) genre adaptation (250 titles and their translations; c) story adaptation (269 titles and their translations).
The initial sampling of feature film titles as well as their genre markers was based on films made in English (imdb.com), and then using the database of titles in the Latvian language (ifdb.lv), we left those film titles that have translation into Latvian, and then sampled translated titles in the database of films in the Russian language (kinopoisk.ru).
It should be stated that imdb.com has a section with materials dedicated to translations of film titles in many languages, but it would not be feasible to take it as the basis as it is not quite fully represents materials for two target languages under review (and not just for them): cf., 625 original titles of feature films between 1991-2000 have 135 Russian translations, 78 Estonian, 14 Lithuanian and only 5 Latvian; and 1125 original film titles between 2001-2010 have 365 Russian, 307 Estonian, 124 Lithuanian and only 46 Latvian translations.
A) Film adaptation
Most often precedent relations arise between the literary and cinematic text and the implementation of these relations is the film adaptation. In general, researchers G.G. Slyshkin and M.A. Yefremova gave the film adaptation definition: “Adaptation is a translation of the artwork from the language of art into screen verbal language” [1: 28p.]. However, the concept of verbal artwork is wide – novels, short stories, plays, and poetry, comics, libretto, especially necessary to note works of a different kind, e.g., computer games. In addition, the latest time foregrounds the issue of journalistic texts, because films are not cinematised only based on articles in journalism, but also on blogs, therefore it is already implemented a broader definition: film adaptation is (virtualised) interpretation of works of art and other types of communication by means of cinema.
Close relationship of the literary and cinematic texts provides a kind of feedback – books, representing retelling, literary record or record of popular movie or TV series dialogues have sprung into popularity: this phenomenon opposite to adaptation is called novelisation.
To evaluate the translation, it is not enough to use the types of adaptations (literal film adaptation, after film adaptation; freestyle film adaptation). Adaptations, their titles and translations can be considered from the standpoint of degree of precedent. In this aspect, the translation becomes the exponent of precedent – the higher the precedent, the closer translation conveys the title of a literary work. Thus, the first group includes works of literature known so that there is no need to call the author, era or otherwise explanation (typical for classic world literature - Homer, Lev Tolstoy, Stanislaw Lem), thus, this is the degree of absolute precedent (universal precedent phenomena). The second precedent group can include works of national literature, which are often systematically translated into other languages (American works, which became known outside the United States, for example , detective and fiction literature of the United States – John Grisham, Elmore Leonard, Michael Crichton, Stephen King, Frank Miller), thus, this is the full precedent (national precedent phenomena). The third precedent group includes works of literature that have been updated due to adaptation (often series editions: “Watch the movie – read the book”, “Actor’s book”, conditionally, it is rather a way to “read a film”), thus, this is the reverse precedent. Finally, the fourth degree of precedent can include popular works of modern times, not yet time-proven, thus, this is a potential precedent (along with the works of the third precedent degree realize the signs of social precedent phenomena). Let us consider the film titles and their translations in a predetermined sequence.
Translations of first precedent degree titles coincide100-80 % with the title of the literary original, often the title coincides with the title of the other adaptation. This group is characterised by multiple translations and adaptations. E.g.,White Fang (Randal Kleiser, 1991) – Baltais ilknis (Ltv. White Fang), Белыйклык (Rus. White Fang)fully consistent withthe translationof literary works Jack LondonWhite Fang: Baltais ilknis (Ltv. White Fang),Белыйклык (Rus. White Fang); Bram Stoker Dracula: Drakula, Дракула. For thisgroup is characterized bymultipletranslations andadaptation. E.g., ЛевТолстойАннаКаренина: Anna Karenina (Bernard Rose, 1997) – Anna Kareņina, АннаКаренинаand otheradaptation: Anna Karenina (Clarence Brown, 1935), Anna Karenina (Julien Duvivier, 1948), АннаКаренина (АлександрЗархи, 1967), Anna Karenina (Simon Langton, 1985), АннаКаренина (СергейСоловьев, 2008), Anna Karenina (Joe Wright, 2012), Anna Karenina (1977) etc.
Other examples of the exact coincidence of film title, its translation and literature work and its translation: The Tempest (Julie Taymor, 2010) – Vētra (Ltv. Tempest), Буря (Rus. Tempest):William ShakespeareThe Tempest; The Lost World (Bob Keen, 1998) – Zudusī pasaule (Ltv. The Lost World), Затерянныймир (Rus. The Lost World):Conan DoyleThe Lost World; Great Expectations (Alfonso Cuarón, 1998) – Lielās cerības (Ltv. Great Expectations), Большиенадежды (Rus. Great Expectations):Charles Dickens Great Expectations; Journey to the Center of the Earth (Eric Brevig, 2008) – Ceļojums uz Zemes centru (Ltv.Journey to theCenter of the Earth), ПутешествиекцентруЗемли (Rus. Journey to theCenter of the Earth):Jules VerneVoyage au centre de la Terre; War of the Worlds (Steven Spielberg, 2005) – Pasauļu karš (Ltv. War of the Worlds), Войнамиров (Rus. War of the Worlds):H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds; Veronika Decides to Die (Emily Young, 2009) – Veronika grib mirt (Ltv.VeronicaWantsto Die), Вероникарешаетумереть (Rus. Veronika Decides to Die):Paulo CoelhoVeronica Decide Morrer; Love in the Time of Cholera (Mike Newell, 2007) – Mīlestība holeras laikos (Ltv. Love in the Time of Cholera), Любовьвовремяхолеры (Rus. Love in the Time of Cholera): Gabriel García MárquezEl amor en los tiempos del cólera.
It is a curious case, where the film title corresponds to a known or a only known version (usually reduced to adaptation) of the title, e.g., a novel by Daniel Defoe is famous by a short title Robinson Crusoe, as his full name The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Of York, Mariner: Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un-inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself. With An Account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by Pyrates,cf.movie title’s translationsRobinson Crusoe (Rod Hardy, George Miller, 1997) – Robinsons Krūzo, РобинзонКрузо.
Otherexamplesoftheoriginaltitlereduction: Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (known as Alice in Wonderland)and tranlsated asАлиса в Стране чудес (Rus. Alice in Wonderland) and Алиса в Зазеркалье (Rus. Alice Through the Looking Glass), Alises piedzīvojumi Brīnumzemē (Ltv. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) andAlise Aizspogulijā (Ltv. Alice Through the Looking Glass)and title of the movie Alice in Wonderland (Tim Burton, 2010) – Alise brīnumzemē (Ltv. Alice in Wonderland), Алисавстранечудес (Rys. Alice in Wonderland);Jonathan Swift Gulliver's Travels Among the Lilliputians and the Giants (the full name:Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of several Ships and known as Gulliver's Travels), translated asGulivera ceļojumi (Ltv. Gulliver's Travels), Путешествия Гулливера (Rus. Gulliver's Travels), and adaptation (like as another adaptations 1939, 1977 and so on) Gullivers Travels (Rob Letterman, 2010) – Gulivera ceļojumi (Ltv. Gulliver's Travels), Путешествия Гулливера (Rus. Gulliver's Travels).
Changes associated with the deviation from the title of a literary work reflect aliterary work adaptation strategy, often retiming the action to present days. Romeo and JulietRomeo + Julietunlikethe translationof literary works: William ShakespeareRomeo and Juliet:Romeo un Dzuljeta (Ltv. Romeo and Juliet), РомеоиДжульетта (Rus. Romeo and Juliet).Alternatively, for example, a film based on the famous work, in which a black woman goes in the Middle Ages: Arthur'srealm(Rus. ) and compare with original:Mark TwainA Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court:Konektukutas jenkijs karaļa Artūra galmā (Ltv. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court), Янки из Коннектикута при дворе короля Артура (Rus. AConnecticutYankeeinKingArthur'sCourt).Sometimes, achangeoftemporaldataisalreadymadeintheoriginaladaptationfilmtitle, e.g., Dracula 2000 (Patrick Lussier, 2000) – Drakula (Ltv. Dracula), Дракула (Rus. Dracula;version of the nameof the original filmWes Craven Presents: Dracula 2000 rarely used), based onBram StokerDracula. Undergochangesand other data, e.g., Nautilus: Lord of the OceanJules VerneVingt mille lieues sous les mersand the translations of the original work:20 000 ljē pa jūras dzelmi(Ltv. ), Двадцать тысяч лье под водой(Rus. ); The Taming of the Shrew10 Things I HateWilliam Shakespeare The Taming of the Shrew and translations: Spītnieces savaldīšana (Ltv. The Taming of the Shrew), Укрощение строптивой (Rus. The Taming of the Shrew).
Modification also involve other data: the second precedent degree titles, which include translations of film titles 80-70 % identical to the name of the literary original. E.g., StephenKing’sadaptationtitles: The Price of FreedomThe Escape from Shawshankand the original workStephen King Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemptionand its translationsRita Heivorte un bēgšana no Šoušenkas (Ltv. Rita Hayworth and Escape from Shawshank), РитаХейуортиспасениеизШоушенка (Rus. Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption); The Green Mile (Frank Darabont, 1999) – Zaļā jūdze (Ltv. The Green Mile), Зеленаямиля (Rus. The Green Mile)and the original work The Green Mile: Zaļā jūdze (Ltv. The Green Mile), Зеленаямиля (Rus. The Green Mile); Secret Window (David Koepp, 2004) – Slepenais logs (Ltv. Secret Window), Тайноеокно (Rus. Secret Window)and the original work Secret Window, Secret Garden: Slepenais logs, slepenais dārzs (Ltv. Secret Window, Secret Garden),Тайноеокно, тайныйсад (Rus. Secret Window, Secret Garden); The Mist (Frank Darabont, 2007) – Migla (Ltv. Mist), Мгла (Rus. Mist)andtheoriginalwork The Mist: Мгла (Rus. Mist, sometimeson the Internet – Туман (Rus. Fog) andТвари – Rus. Critters ), no Latviantranslation.
Another author, whose works are often adapted, is John Grisham: A Time to Kill (Joel Schumacher, 1996) – Laiks nogalināt (Ltv. Time to Kill), Времяубивать (Rus. Time to Kill)иand the original workTime to Kill: Laiks nogalināt (Ltv. Time to Kill), Времяубивать (Rus. Time to Kill); The Chamber (James Foley, 1996) – Kamera (Ltv. Camera / Chamber), Камера (Rus. Camera / Chamber)andtheoriginalworkThe Chamber: Камера (Rus Camera / Chamber), no Latviantranslation; erdictandtheoriginalworkThe Runaway Jury: Вердикт (Rus. Verdict), no Latviantranslation. As well ThomasHarris:The Silence Of The Lambs (Jonathan Demme, 1991) – Jēru klusēšana (Ltv. Silence Of The Lambs), Молчаниеягнят (Rus. Silence Of The Lambs)andtheoriginalworkThe Silence of the Lambs: Jēru klusēšana (Ltv. Silence Of The Lambs), Молчаниеягнят (Silence Of The Lambs);PatriciaHighsmith:The Talented Mr. Ripley (Anthony Minghella, 1999) – Talantīgais misters Riplijs (Ltv. Talented mister Ripley), ТалантливыймистерРипли (Rus. Talented mister Ripley)andtheoriginalworkThe Talented Mr. Ripley: Talantīgais misters Riplijs (Rus. Talented mister Ripley), ТалантливыймистерРипли (Rus. Talented mister Ripley).The group represented not only by detective fiction:JaneSmileyA Thousand Acres and its adaptation A Thousand Acres (Jane Smiley, 1997) – Tūkstoš akru (Ltv. A Thousand Acres), Тысячаакров (Rus. A Thousand Acres);translation of the titleof the book: Tūkstoš akru (Ltv. A Thousand Acres), Тысячаакров (Rus. A Thousand Acres). ThisgroupcouldincludetheauthorssuchasMichaelCrichton (Sphere, Rising Sun, Jurassic Park, Congo adaptations), ElmoreLeonard(Jackie Brown, Be Cool, ПоезднаЮму, Get Shorty, Out of Sightadaptations), PhilipKindredDick Blade Runner, Minority Report VALISadaptations NicholasCharlesSparks (The Notebook,A Walk to Remember,Message in a Bottleadaptations). A Latvian film critic N. Naumanis noticed that “resettlement” of plots and comic book characters to the television and films is one of the formulas of income that is still valid. One of the most characteristic evidence of this is a representative of the group in question – Frank Miller (Daredevil, Elektra, 300, Sin City adaptations).
Among the titles of the second precedent degree can be the reduced titles. E.g., Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas (Terry Gilliam, 1998) – Bailes un naids Lasvegasā (Ltv. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas), СтрахиненавистьвЛас-Вегасе (Rus. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas)andtheoriginalworkHunter S. Thompson Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream and its translations: Bailes un riebums Lasvegasā: Mežonīgs ceļojums uz amerikāņu sapņu sirdi (Ltv. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream), СтрахиотвращениевЛас-Вегасе: Дикоепутешествиевсердцеамериканскоймечты (Rus. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream). Another example: Apollo 13 (Ron Howard, 1995) – Apollo 13, Аполлон 13andtheoriginalwork (astronaut’memoirs) Jim Lovell & Jeffrey KlugerLost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13: Потеряннаялуна: ОпасноепутешествиеАпполон-13 (Rus. Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo-13), no Latviantranslation.
In the second precedent degree group the number of changed title is growing due to both reduced degree of precedent and liberty of adaptations. For example, reduced degree of precedent in such titles and their translations. E.g., The 13th Warrior (John McTiernan, 1999) – Trīspadsmitais kareivis (Ltv. The 13th Warrior), 13-йвоин (Rus. The 13th Warrior)andtheoriginalworkMichael CrichtonEaters of the Dead and its translations Nāves ēdāji (Ltv. Deatheaters), sometimesin thecontext of the filmin journalismused the title13 tais kareivis – Ltv. The 13th Warrior), Пожирателимертвых (Rus. Death eaters, a laterversion13-йвоин – Rus. The 13th Warrior). Often, changes are explained by distant adaptations (systematic designation “based on”). E.g., Simon Birch (Mark Steven Johnson, 1998) – Saimons Bērčs (Ltv. Simon Birch), СаймонБирч (Rus. Simon Birch)andtheoriginalworkJohn IrvingA Prayer for Owen Meany:Lūgšana par Ouenu Mīniju (Ltv. A Prayer for Owen Meany), МолитваобОуэнеМини (Rus. A Prayer for Owen Meany);Surviving the Game (Ernest R. Dickerson, 1994) – Pārdzīvot spēli (Ltv. Surviving the Game), Игранавыживание (Rus. The Game of Survival)andtheoriginalworkRichard Connell The Most Dangerous Game: Visbīstamākais medījums (Ltv. The Most Dangerous Game),Крайнеопаснаяигра (Rus.ExtremelyDangerous Game; other titles Самаяопаснаядичь, Крупнаядобыча – Rus.The most dangerous game, Majormining ); Artifical Intelligence: AI (sometimes A.I. Artificial Intelligence or A.I.) (Steven Spielberg, 2001) – Mākslīgais intelekts (Ltv. Artifical Intelligence), Искусственныйразум (Rus. Artifical Intelligence)andtheoriginalwork (novel) Brian AldissSuper-Toys Last All Summer Long: Superrotaļlietu pietiek visai vasarai (Ltv. Super-Toys Last All Summer Long; but theofficial translationinto Latviannotexist, onlymentions in Englishin journalism), Суперигрушекхватаетнавселето(Rus.Super-Toys Last All Summer Long). The authors of this group are David Gerrold (Martian Childfilm adaptation), Jeffrey Deaver (The Bone Collector film adaptation), Tom Clancy (Patriot Games film adaptation), John Berendt (Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evilfilm adaptation), Patrick O’Brian (Master and Commander: The end of the Worldfilm adaptation), Michael Cunningham (A Home At The End Of The Worldfilm adaptation), Christopher Buckley (Thank You for Smoking film adaptation), Upton Sinclair (Oil film adaptation), Chuck Palahniuk (Fight Club, Chokefilm adaptations), Cormac McCarthy (Road, No Country for Old Menfilm adaptations) etc.
The titles of the third degree of precedent. Translations of film titles 70-60 % coincide with literary work. Reverse precedent – a work of literature becomes more known to the non-American public after adaptation, so one of the indicators can be considered a publication of the book in translation after adaptation (usually visually dressed using stills from the film). The group includes both American authors, and representatives of other countries. E.g.,BellaMafia (DavidGreene, 1997) – Skaistā Mafija (Ltv. BeautifulMafia),Крестнаямать (Rus. Godmother)andtheoriginalworkLynda La PlanteBella Mafia: Лучшаяполовинамафии (Rus. Better half of the Mafia ; later editionsand Internet –Крестнаямать – Rus. Godmother ), no Latviantranslation; This Boy’s Life (Michael Caton-Jones, 1993) – Šī puiša dzīve (Ltv. This Boy’s Life), Жизнь этого парня (Rus. This Boy’s Life)and the original workTobias WolffThis Boy’s Life: Правдивая история этого парня (Rus. The True Storyofthis boy ; later version Жизнь этого парня – Rus. This Boy’s Life), no Latviantranslation; Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles (Neil Jordan, 1994) – Intervija ar vampīru (Ltv. Interview with the Vampire); Интервью с вампиром (Rus. Interview with the Vampire)andtheoriginalworkAnne RiceInterview with the Vampire: Intervija ar vampīru (Ltv. Interview with the Vampire), Интервью с вампиром (Rus. Interview with the Vampire);ClimberDiaryClimberDiaryand the original workAdele Lang : Признания бессовестной карьеристки (Rus. Recognition of a unscrupulouscareerists ), no Latviantranslation; The Devil Wears Prada (David Frankel, 2006) – Sātans Pradas brunčos (Ltv. The Devil Wears Prada), Дьявол носит «Prada» (Rus. The Devil Wears Prada)andtheoriginalworkLauren Weisberger The Devil Wears Prada: Sātans Pradas brunčos (Ltv. The Devil Wears Prada), Дьявол носит «Прада» (Rus. The Devil Wears Prada); P.S. I Love You (Richard LaGravenese, 2007) – P.S. Es tevi mīlu (Ltv. P.S. I Love You), P.S. Я люблю тебя (Rus. P.S. I Love You)and the original workCecelia AhernPS, I Love You: P.S. Es tevi mīlu (Ltv.P.S. I Love You), P.S. Я люблю тебя (Rus. P.S. I Love You). Other authorsof this group: ThomasKeneally (Schindler's List film adaptation), WinstonGroom (Forrest Gump film adaptation), JimCarroll (The Basketball Diaries film adaptation), ChrisVanAllsburg (Jumanji film adaptation), GregoryMcdonald (The Brave film adaptation), JamesPaterson (Kiss the Girls adaptation MargaretLandon (Anna and the King film adaptation), HubertSelby (Requiem for a Dream film adaptation), Bruce Porter (Blow film adaptation), Susan Orlean (Adaptation. film adaptation), ElinorLipman (Then She Found Me film adaptation), John Grogan (Marley & Me film adaptation), Rebecca Augusta Miller (The Private Lives of Pippa Lee film adaptation).
The fourth precedent degree group titles – potential. Translations of film titles 50-40 % coincide with a literary work or there is no translation. Potential precedent awaits the test of time, it includes the film titles, which could be potentially used, or they are known for a particular group, moreover, often books are not translated into one or both of the considered languages. E.g., Mrs. Doubtfire (Chris Columbus, 1993) – Mūžīgā aukle (Ltv. EternalNanny), МиссисДаутфайр (Rus. Missis Doubtfire)andtheoriginalwork Anne Fine Alias Madame Doubtfire: no translations; The Man Without a Face (Mel Gibson, 1993) – Cilvēks bez sejas (Ltv. The Man Without a Face), Человекбезлица (Rus. The Man Without a Face)andtheoriginalworkIsabelle HollandThe Man Without a Face: Человекбезлица (Rus. The Man Without a Face), no Latviantranslation; Dangerous Minds (John N. Smith, 1995) – Bīstamie prāti (Ltv. Dangerous Minds), Опасныедни (Rus. Dangerous Days)andtheoriginalworkLouAnne JohnsonMy Posse Don't Do Homework: no translations; The Ghost and the Darkness (Stephen Hopkins, 1996) – Spoks un tumsa (Ltv. The Ghost and the Darkness), ПризракиТьма (Rus. The Ghost and the Darkness)andtheoriginalworkJohn Henry PattersonThe Man-eaters of Tsavo and other East African Adventures: no translations; Donnie Brasco (Mike Newell, 1997) – Donijs Brasko (Ltv. Donnie Brasco), ДонниБраско (Rus. Donnie Brasco)andtheoriginalworkJoseph D. Pistone, Richard WoodleyDonnie Brasco: My Undercover Life in the Mafia: no translations; The White Raven (1998, Jakub Z. Rucinski) – Nāves dimants (Ltv. Deathdiamond), Алмазсмерти (Rus. Deathdiamond)andtheoriginalworkMichael BlodgettThe White Raven: no translations; Mercury in dangerMercury in dangerandtheoriginalworkRyne Douglas Pearson : no translations; andtheoriginalworkStephen McCauley : Объектмоеговосхищения (Rus. ), no Latviantranslation; Instinct (Jon Turteltaub, 1999) – Instinkts (Ltv. Instinct), Инстинкт (Rus. Instinct)andtheoriginalworkDaniel QuinnIshmael:Исмаил (Rus. Ishmael), no Latviantranslation; andtheoriginalworkBari WoodDoll's Eyes: Глазакуклы (Rus. Doll's eyes), no Latviantranslation; Tissue of liesandtheoriginalworkWarren AdlerRandom Hearts: Паутиналжи (Rus. Tissue of lies), no Latviantranslation; What’s the Worst That Could Happen? (Sam Weisman, 2001) – Sliktāk nevar būt (Ltv. Worsecan’tbe), Чтомоглобытьхуже? (Rus. What’s the Worst That Could Happen?)andtheoriginalworkDonald Westlake What's the Worst That Could Happen?: notranslations; The Emperor’s Club (Michael Hoffman, 2002) – Imperatoru klubs (Ltv. The Emperor’s Club), Императорскийклуб (Rus. The Emperor’s Club)andtheoriginalworkEthan CaninThe Palace Thief: notranslations; FraudstersMatchstickandtheoriginalworkEric Garcia Matchstick Men: Великолепнаяафера (Rus. Matchstick), no Latviantranslation; A Love Song For Bobby Long (Shainee Gabel, 2004) – Mīlas dziesma Bobijam Longam (Ltv. A Love Song For Bobby Long),Любовнаялихорадка (Rus. Love Fever)andtheoriginalworkRonald Everett CappsOff Magazine Street: Любовнаялихорадка(Rus. Love Fever), no Latviantranslation; Back ways / SidewaysOnthe sidelinesandtheoriginalworkRex PickettSideways: notranslations; Must love Dogs (Gary David Goldberg, 2005) – Meklēju suņumīli (Ltv. Must love Dogs), Любовьксобакамобязательна (Rus. Must love Dogs)andtheoriginalworkClaire CookMust Love Dogs: notranslations; Doubt (John Patrick Shanley, 2008) – Šaubas (Ltv. Doubt), Сомнение (Rus. Doubt)andtheoriginalworkJohn Patrick ShanleyDoubt: A Parable: notranslations.
Thus, for a description of the return to the source strategy, it would be appropriate to use the concept of precedent, which is realised in specific phenomena – precedent phenomena (e.g., precedent texts, precedent titles, etc.). Adaptation translation is the return to the source (most often – a literary work). The choice of adaptation title translation depends on the degree of original work precedent: absolute (coinciding 100-80 % with the original source title), full (coinciding 80-70 % with the original source title), reverse (coinciding 70-60 % with the original source title) and potential (coinciding 60-50 % with the original source title).
Follow-ups are created on either forward (the sequel) or backward (prequel) time basis. Besides – it can be created a midquel (development of such a plot occurs within the original story), interquel (development of a plot between the two original stories). Moreover, cross-prequels and sequels or crossovers (simultaneous continuation of two or more films), spin-off sequel (the protagonists of this type are the secondary characters of the original). It can be considered separately false prequels and sequels (quasi prequels and sequels): they use a generic term fakequel. Sequels often make a series of films, sometimes referred to as a franchise (the word comes from the French franchise – a privilege, and denotes the complex formed by a system of characters, chronotope system, etc.).
This study focuses on the comparative analysis of the titles of feature films produced in the USA and their translation into Latvian and Russian languages, and served as the main method of comparative study was the cognitive discourse analysis, which includes elements of the component analysis, stylistic and other calculations, and, of course, introspection. The main objective of the study is to analyse the titles of feature films (produced in the USA in 1991-2010) and their translation into Latvian and Russian languages to establish implementation of adaptation communication strategy – the systems of communication strategies and communication moves implementing them. Results of the analysis reflected in the monographic study “Cinematic Text and Translation” (published by Lambert, 2014). In this paper, we will present the results of one of the most important groups of titles.
Let us consider follow-ups (mainly prequels and sequels) and their translations into Latvian and Russian languages. In general, a comparative analysis involved 127 sequel nests (382 titles and their translations), consisting of a different number of component films. Film nests formed on the necessary connection, and, unlike the remakes, creates strict adherence in translation. Thus, this group belongs to the most homogeneous in terms of both titles and translation in two languages. Nevertheless, certaintrendswewillconsidercloseraretraced.
The most complex structures observed in intersecting nests (crossovers) that is not an obstacle for serial title rendering in translation. Ridley Scott, 1979) –Svešais (лтш. Чужой), Чужой; Aliens (James Cameron, 1986) –Svešais 2,Чужие; Alien3 (DavidFincher, 1992) – Svešais 3, Чужой 3;Alien Resurrection (Jean-Pierre Jeunet, 1997) – Svešais: Atdzimšana, Чужой 4: Воскрешение; AVP: Alien vs. Predator (Paul W. S. Anderson, 2004) – Svešais pret plēsoņu, Чужой против Хищника;Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem (2007) – Prometheus (Ridley Scott, 2012) – Prometejs, Прометей; crossovers of this franchise: Predator: Predator (John McTiernan, 1987) – Plēsoņa, Хищник; Predator 2 (Stephen Hopkins, 1990) – Plēsoņa 2, Хищние 2; movies: Alien vs. Predator (Paul W. S. Anderson, 2004) – Svešais pret plēsoņu, Чужой против Хищника; Aliens vs. Predator: Requiem ( 2007) – Predators (Nimród Antal, 2010) – Plēsoņas, Хищники.franchise Alien (
The majority of translations mark the next part of the nest after the original, which usually serve as digital markers – the most typical implementation, which can support the explaining part after the colon. Usually, these methods remain unchanged throughout the nest of original titles and their translations. Lethal Weapon (Richard Donner, 1987) – Nāvējošais ierocis, Смертельное оружие; Lethal Weapon 2 (Richard Donner, 1989) – Nāvējošais ierocis 2, Смертельное оружие 2; Lethal Weapon 3 (Richard Donner, 1992) – Nāvējošais ierocis 3, Смертельное оружие 3; Lethal Weapon 4 (Richard Donner, 1998) – Nāvējošais ierocis 4, Смертельное оружие 4;smalldeviationin the categorynumberobservedin the Latviantranslation ofthe last example: Paranormal Activity (Oren Peli, 2007) – Paranormālās parādības (Ltv. Paranormal Activities), Паранормальное явление (Rus. Paranormal Activity); Paranormal Activity 2 (Tod Williams, 2010) – Paranornālā parādība 2 (Ltv. Paranormal Activity 2), Паранормальное явление 2 (Rus. Paranormal Activity 2).
Sometimes they hedge sequel translations and use an additional follow-up numeric designation. E.g.,Matt Codd, 2001) – Laikmets, Эпоха (Ltv. and Rus. Epoch);Underworld (Len Wiseman, 2003) – Tumsas pasaule (Ltv. The World ofDarkness), Другой мир (Rus. Another World) Underworld: Evolution (Len Wiseman, 2006) – Tumsas pasaule 2: Evolūcija (Ltv.The World ofDarkness), Другой мир 2: Эволюция (Rus. Another World 2: Evolution).The remaining part of this franchise show some inconsistency in Latvian translation (use of different structures – substantive and adjective),e.g., Underworld: Rise of the Lycans (Patrick Tatopoulos, 2009) – Tumsas pasaule: Vilkašu sacelšanās (Ltv. The World ofDarkness:Insurrection of Werewolf), Другой мир: Восстание ликанов (Rus. Another World:Insurrection of Lycans) and Underworld: Awakening (Måns Mårlind, Björn Stein, 2012) – siquel for second movie of the franchise – Tumšā pasaule 4 (Ltv. The Dark World 4), Другой мир: Пробуждение (Rus. Another World: Awakening).
Follow-up marking uses specific lexical or sometimes word-formation means (with the meaning of recurring or regular action) that is easily maintained in the translation, e.g., When a Stranger Calls (Fred Walton, 1979) –Kad zvana svešinieks (Ltv. When a Stranger Calls), Когда незнакомец звонит (Rus. When a Stranger Calls); When a Stranger Calls (2006) – Kad zvana svešinieks (Ltv. When a Stranger Calls), Когда звонит незнакомец (Rus. When a Stranger Calls) and When a Stranger Calls Back (Fred Walton, 1993) – Kad svešinieks atzvana ((Ltv. When a Stranger Calls Back), Когда незнакоменц снова звонит (Rus. (Ltv. When a Stranger Calls Again). The following example shows the differences in designing the follow-up in all three languages: derivational means in the original, lexical means in the Russian and numeric means in the Latvian translation with a total meaning of quality / action increase: Grumpy Old Men (Donald Petrie, 1993) – Vecie īgņas (Ltv. Grumpy Old Men), Старые ворчуны (Rus. Grumpy Old Men) and the siquel Grumpier Old Men (Howard Deutch, 1995) – Vecie īgņas 2 (Grumpy Old Men 2), Старые ворчуны разбушевались (Rus. Grumpy Old Men have raged).
The classic way to design a sequel using lexical means – lexical elements ‘return’ (in Russian – возвращение, in Latvian – atgriešanās / atgriezties) in Russian and Latvian languages, e.g., The Mummy (Stephen Sommers, 1999) –Mūmija,Мумия(Ltv. and Rus. The Mummy), which is a distant remake of The Mummy by Boris Karloff in the title role (Karl Freund, 1932), the translation of which – Mūmija,Мумия (Ltv. and Rus. The Mummy). Designingits sequel involved lexical means, easily transmitted in translation:The Mummy Returns (Stephen Sommers, 2001) – Mūmija atgriežas, Мумия возвращается(Ltv. and Rus. The Mummy Returns). A classic way to design a prequel –a lexeme “beginning / raise” (in Russian начало / восхождение, in Latvian sākums / nākšana) does not constitute a communicative risks in translation as well, e.g., Romy and Michele’s High School Reunion (David Mirkin, 1997) – Romija un Mišela vidusskolas salidojumā (Ltv. Romy and Michele at High SchoolReunion), Роми и Мишель на встрече выпускников(Rus. Romy and Michele at High SchoolReunion) and priquel Romy and Michele: In the Beginning (Robin Schiff, 2005) – Romija un Mišela. Sākums (Ltv. Romy and Michele: the Beginning), Роми и Мишель. В начале пути (Rus. Romy and Michele: In the Beginning of the Way); priquel Carlito’s Way: Rise to Power (Michael Bregman, 2005) – Karlito ceļš: Nākšana pie varas (Ltv. Carlito’s Way: Access to Power), Путь Карлито 2: Восхождение к власти(Rus. Carlito’s Way 2: Rise to Power) and the movie Carlito’s Way (Brian De Palma, 1993) – Karlito ceļš, Путь Карлито (Ltv. and Rus. Carlito’s Way). The third part may be presented lexically by the designations of following or third generation (protagonists or antagonists) – legacy, heir, new blood, new part, a new beginning (in Russian – наследство, наследник, новаякровь, новаячасть, новоеначало, in Latvian – mantojums, mantinieks, jaunāsasinis, jaunādaļa, jaunssākums) and so on.
If the design of original sequels is inconsistent, translations can adjust the position, i.e., arrange the nest, thus reducing the risk of communication failure in the title. For example, translation into Russian as opposed to the original in English followed by a Latvian has “a sequential structure”, e.g., Once Upon a Time in Mexico (Robert Rodriguez, 2003) – Reiz Meksikā (Ltv. Upon a Time in Mexico), ОднаждывМексике: Отчаянный 2 (Rus. Upon a Time in Mexico: Desperate 2). Comparethe design of previoustitle of movie: MusicianDesperado ( 1995) – Desperado, Отчаянный (Rus. Desperate).
Series can mark either uniformity of grammatical or semantic structure of film titles, easily transmitted in translation. E.g., Before Sunset (Richard Linklater, 2004) – Pirms saulrieta, Перед закатом (Ltv. and Rus. Before Sunset); Before Sunrise (Richard Linklater, 1995) – Pirms saullēkta, Перед рассветом (Ltv. and Rus. Before Sunrise); Before Midnight (Richard Linklater, 2013) – Pirms pusnakts, Перед полуночью (Ltv. and Rus. Before Midnight).
Let us consider the translation of the follow-up titles that do not follow the proposed original title.simplifieddesign of the trilogyin translation: Problem Child(Dennis Dugan, 1990)Sarežģītais bērns, Трудный ребенок (Ltv. and Rus. Problem Child); Ltv. and Rus. Problem Child 2Problem Child 3: Junior in Love (Greg Beeman, 1995) – Sarežģītais bērns 3, Трудный ребенок 3 (Ltv. and Rus. Problem Child 3). Most often simplified marking trend is followed by the Latvian translation, adhering to system – they use a numerical way as a more concise and compact way of marking the series. E.g., Speed (Jan de Bont, 1994) – Ātrums(лтш. Скорость), Скорость (Ltv. and Rus. Speed); However, this trend of simplified marking in Latvian translation cannot be considered as totally universal. Spy Kids (Robert Rodriguez, 2001) – Spiegu bērni, Дети шпионов (Rus. and Ltv. Spy Kids); Spy Kids 2: Island of Lost Dreams (Robert Rodriguez, 2002) – Spiegu Bērni 2 (Ltv. Spy Kids 2), Дети шпионов 2: Остров несбывшихся надежд (Rus. Spy Kids 2: Island of Lost Dreams); Spy Kids 3D: Game Over (Robert Rodriguez, 2003) – Spiegu bērni 3: Spēle beigusies(Ltv. Spy Kids 3: Game Over), Дети шпиона 3: Игра окончена (Rus. Spy Kids 3: Game Over).
Sometimes translations using localisation or instantiation after the colon emphasize the follow-up distance (quasi follow-ups). E.g., Russiantranslation of the quasi-continuationDangerous Games Brutal Games Dangerous Games 2 Brutal Games 2: Manchesterpreparation Both films are based on the work of Les Liaisons dangereuses (Choderlos de Laclos, 1782). It is noteworthy that the third part formed both in the original and in translation without localisation without instantiation, apparently, quasi vector was fairly pronounced in the first sequel Cruel Intentions 3 (Scott Ziehl, 2004) – Bīstamās spēles 3 (Ltv. Dangerous Games 3), Жестокие игры 3 (Rus. Brutal Games 3). Another film–a typicalexample ofpseudocontinuations: American Psyho (Mary Harron, 2000) – Amerikāņu psihopāts, Американский психопат(Ltv. and Rus. American Psyho) – based on the novel American Psycho (Bret Easton Ellis, 1991) and its sequel(quasi-sequel): American Psyho 2 American Psyho 2: One hundred percent American girl
Translations into Russian show more design freedom and even keyword selection that into Latvian. For example, replacement of the keyword ‘game’ on the ‘massacre’. Ralph E. PortilloBloodyMassacreBloodyGameBloodyMassacre 2BloodyGameintroduction ofsubject-adapting design Враг в отражении(Rus. The Enemy in a Reflection )intoRussiantranslation: Spider-Man (Sam Raimi, 2002) – Zirnekļcilvēks, Человек-паук (Ltv. and Rus. Spider-Man); Spider-Man 2 (Sam Raimi, 2004) – Zirnekļcilvēks 2, Человек-паук 2 (Ltv. and Rus. Spider-Man 2); Spider-Man 3 Spider-Man 3: The Enemy in a Reflectionbased on the Stan Lee, Steve Ditko Marvel comics).
Translation can also align the succession of the original parts of the series, if its parts were called without the visual lexical or grammatical connection. E.g.,siquel of the movie The Foreigner:Black Dawn (Alexander Gruszynski, 2005) – Melnā rītausma (Ltv. Black Dawn), Иностранец 2: Черный рассвет(Rus. The Foreigner: Black Dawn) compare with originalThe Foreigner (2002) – Ārzemnieks, Иностранец (Ltv. and Rus. The Foreigner).
In general, this kind of precedent cinematic text–follow-ups – show minimal differences in the outcomes of Russian and Latvian translations. However, in the period 2000-2010, the differences become more pronounced: The Chronicles of Riddick (David Twohy, 2004) – Ridika Hronikas, ХроникиРиддика (Ltv. and Rus. The Chronicles of Riddick); The Chronicles of Riddick: WhendarknessbeginsThe Black HoleUnseen Evil (Jay Woelfel, 2001) – Невидимое зло (Ltv. Unseenevil),no translationinto Latvian; Unseen Evil 2 (2004, Jeff Leroy) – Neredzēts ļaunums 2 (Ltv. Unseenevil 2); Против хищника (Rus. Against predator).It worth saying that one may meet lexically incorrect support of the series or the absence of such a support, which is an example of communication failure in translation. E.g., The Sandlot 2 (David M. Evans, 2005) – Beisbola laukums 2 (Ltv. Baseball Field 2), Пустырь 2(Rus. Wasteland 2) ir sicuql of the movie The Sandlot (David M. Evans, 1993) – Beisbola laukums (Ltv. Baseball Field), Площадка (Rus. Platform).
In general, the addition of elements, slightly opening the new part of the story, often serve as story adaptation in the translations. Translations with changes in genre type almost not needed because the genre is known due the first film. andsequel Book of Shadows: Blair Witch 2 (Joe Berlinger, 2000) – Ēnu grāmata: Blēras ragana 2 (Ltv. sequelBook of Shadows: Blair Witch 2), Ведьма из Блэр 2: Книга теней (Rus. sequelBlair Witch 2: Book of Shadows).from Another World)
Follow-ups, which have no markings showing belonging to series, stand alone, and therefore are hardly identified as a part belonging to the whole (this risk communicative name of the original work). prequelto the filmSaw (James Wan, 2004) – Zāģis, Пила (Ltv. and Rus. Saw); Get Him to the Greek (Nicholas Stoller, 2010) – Dabū viņu uz skatuves (Ltv. Get Him to theScene), Побег из Вегаса(Rus. Escape fromVegas) – spin-offsequelto the filmForgetting Sarah Marshall (2008, Nicholas Stoller) – Aizmirst Sāru Maršalu (Ltv. Forgetting Sarah Marshall),Впролете (Rus. Out in the Cold).The Collector (Marcus Dunstan, 2009) – Kolekcionārs, Коллекционер(Ltv. and Rus. The Collector) is
For the description of appeal to source strategy, it would be appropriate to use the concept of precedent, which is realised in specific phenomena – precedent phenomena (e.g. precedent texts, precedent titles, etc.). Follow-ups and their translations have recourse to the source (first film, a filmthat originateda series of sequels). Follow-up titles are centripetal – the tend to a nest together with the film title as well.