The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Translator Training in Educational Functions | April 2016 | Translation Journal

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The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Translator Training in Educational Functions


Late studies demonstrate that translators basically should know about and draw in compelling translation techniques to have the capacity to decipher unequivocally the data from content and meaning. Through the scholastic connection, translation includes endless exercises, for example, understanding and recollecting thoughts, distinguishing and specifically taking care of important data, checking understanding and concentrating on, processing data as exact as basically surveying a content. Key learning, metacognition, and checking of the understanding procedures is a critical angle in talented translation. Metacognitive translation preparing technique mindfulness assumes a critical part in translation understanding and instructive procedure. The other way around its essentialness, metacognitive procedure has been the slighted ability in translator preparing. A standout amongst the most referred to reasons is that these students are not utilizing their own particular psychological procedure or metacognition totally to handle their translation possibilities. This article yearning is to portray the metacognitive translation techniques utilized by a gathering of BA translation students while deciphering scholarly messages at a private college. The present study is an endeavor to recognize whether "meta-intellectual translation system mindfulness" enhances BA translation students' comprehension of setting. A quantitative examination configuration is utilized to gather information from a gathering of members. The discoveries showed that the members know about their procedure of creating significance from the content. They can make utilization of a wide determination of these translation techniques to accomplish understanding. Discoveries in view of the audit of the writing similarly with examination of the information are of extraordinary hugeness and can be good to enhance BA translation students' metacognitive connection understanding expertise.

Keywords: metacognitive translation strategy, context understanding, BA translation students, translator training strategy


  1. Background
  2. Statement of the Problem
  3. Significance of the Study
  4. Purpose of the Study
  5. Research Question
  6. Research ypothesis
  7. Definitions of Key Terms
  8. Participants
  9. Instruments


Metacognition had received obvious interest by researchers in the field of translator training based on three main reasons (Abdel, 2004). Firstly, metacognitive knowledge developed good thinkers and lifelong learners who could cope with new situations in this fast changing world (Eggen & Kaucbak, 1995). The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive translator training in educational functions of BA translation students among male BA translation students of Islamic Azad University of Quchan in third academic year. The objective of this paper is to conduct a study on the effectiveness of metacognitive translator training in educational functions and use it among a group of BA translation students in third academic year of studying at a selected private university in Mashhad, Iran when involved with a task of translating an academic text.

Recent researches Niemi (2002), Shimamura (2000) and Jacob & Paris (1987) mentioned that many BA translation students were not well-equipped to handle the academic text. One of the frequent cited issues was the lack of knowledge of the students' own cognitive process, also known as metacognition, to maintain their translation abilities. Bernhardt (2000:701) claimed that one of the most frequently cited purposes for learning a second language is for reading before translation. According to Niemi (2002) and Shimamura (2000), metacognition is regarded as the knowledge of one's cognitive processes the efficient use of this self-confidence to self-regulate these cognitive processes. Metacognition had become a common-used term in research on reading before translation because it showed how translation students planned, monitored, and repaired their own understanding (Jacob & Paris, 1987).

The previous study on this problem (Kate Bathaa & Professor Marie Carroll, 2007) was conducted to determine (a) the relationship between metacognitive training and decision making, however this paper aims to study the effectiveness of metacognitive translator training in educational functions of BA translation students. In this study, metacognitive translator training strategies were described as the deliberate, conscious procedures used by trainers to improve text understanding of students. According to Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001) there was an essentiality to increase the students' metacognitive knowledge about reading and translation approaches in order to develop them into active and constructively responsive translators.

The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive translator training in educational functions of BA translation students among male BA translation students in third academic year of studying at Islamic Azad University of Quchan.

Does the metacognitive translator training affect educational functions of male BA translation students in third academic year of studying?

Metacognitive translator training affects educational functions of male BA translation students in third academic year of studying.

Metacognition: the knowledge of one's cognitive processes.


The participants for this study are 30 male BA translation students in third academic year of studying, and their age is between 20 and 25 who were studying at Islamic Azad University of Quchan in Mashhad, Iran.

The study conducted a quantitative research design using a questionnaire. The students' educational functions of metacognitive translator training were evaluated by the use of the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) which was designed by Mokhtari and Reichard (2000) and Translation and Validation of Study Instruments questionnaire designed by Ami D. Sperber (2004). This inventory was designed to measure adult students' awareness and use of reading strategies while translating academic texts. The statements in the inventory used Likert scale which ranged from 1 (I never or almost never use this approach) to 5 (I always or almost always use this approach).

The inventory had thirty items and it was categorized into three components: Global approaches, problem-solving approaches and support approaches. There were thirteen items in the global reading approaches. They represented a set of reading approaches oriented toward a global analysis of text such as setting purpose for reading, previewing text content and predicting what the text was about. Problem­solving approaches made up eight items which were oriented around approaches for solving problems when text became difficult to translate. Examples of this group of approaches included checking one's understanding upon encountering conflicting information and re-reading for better understanding before starting to translate. Nine items in the support reading strategies were primarily involved with the use of outside reference materials, taking notes and other practical strategies such as the use of reference materials like dictionaries.

Translation message: A seven-lines entry was chosen of a four-segment content which is fused into Translation from English for Advanced Students, created by H.A. Cartledge (2005). Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English: This is an English-English vocabulary for forefront learners, appropriated by Pearson Education Limited in 2010. This was obliged the respondents all through Translation. Aryanpour: This is an English-Persian dictionary, formed by Abbas Aryanpour, Dr Manouchehr Aryanpour, appropriated by Aryanpour Publishers in 2003. Individuals in like manner had passage to this word reference while unraveling. A Tape recorder, paper, and a pen: The recording gadget was used for recording the sound of the individuals while verbally handling in the midst of the Translation process. A touch of paper and a pen were used by the authority to record the individuals' behavior and advancements in the midst of their Translation undertaking.

The instrument was administered during a regular translation class period. Prior to completing the inventory, students were asked to read an academic text to provide context for the application of the approaches given to them. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive analytical statistics. In examining translation students' use of approach, the mean score interpretation was conducted on Oxford and Burry-Stock (1995). The mean scores ranged from 1 to 5 and this study employed three levels of usage as suggested by Oxford and Burry-Stock (1995). The approach use was considered high when the mean score obtained was 3.5 or higher. If the mean score was between 2.5 and 3.4, then the use of approach was considered as a moderate level. Finally, the use of approach was considered low when the mean score was 2.4 or lower.


The information broke down quantitatively and ANOVA used to dissect the distinctions among gathering means and their related systems. The engaging logical measurements for learners' accomplished utilization of individual procedures and the general mean score of each of the three classifications of metacognitive showing techniques were additionally included. For the segment of metacognitive systems, Table 1 demonstrated that larger part of the learners had high and successive utilization of 11 out of 13 metacognitive methodologies therefore the mean score was 3.5 and then some. Genuinely, these male learners of third year at university that aged between 20-25, utilized 'seeing content before perusing as one of the regular utilization' (M=4.17). This outcome is significant and showed that these learners with the consuming of metacognitive technique delineated a limit of getting ready for perusing. Two out of the 13 metacognitive segment procedures in connection with the 'utilization of typographical guides and highlights to recognize vital data' (M=3.34) and 'breaking down the data exhibited in the content and at the same time assessing the significance of every piece of data from the setting' (M=3.21) were used by the learners at a moderate level. The aftereffects of this study were in the same line with the discoveries of Gile (2009) who expressed that in metacognitive mode, all learners, with the consuming of metacognitive indicating system, reliably used speculating as a methodology when they were perusing in setting.

Table 1: Metacognitive Strategies (N=30)


Metacognitive Strategies




I have a purpose in mind when I read before translation.




I think about what I know to help me understand what I want to translate.




I preview the text to see what it's about before translating it.




I think about whether the content of the text fits my translation purpose.




I skim the text first by noting characteristics like length and organization.




I decide what to translate closely and what to ignore




I use tables, figures, and pictures in text to increase my understanding.




I use context clues to help me better understand what I'm translating.




I use typographical aids like highlights, bold and italics to identify important information.




I critically analyze and evaluate the information presented in the text.




I check my understanding when I come across conflicting information.




I try to guess what the material is about when I translate.




I check to see if my guesses about the text are right or wrong.



Move down methodologies were used by learners to enhance understanding and memory. The discoveries showed that the learners' utilization of go down methodologies were in the scope of moderate to high for instance, the successive use of 'reference materials e.g. word references' (M=3.82, SD=0.91) and 'discovering the relations' (SM=3.60, SD=0.97) as exhibited in Table 2. Utilizing lexicon techniques was one of the successive systems in the bolster methodology bunch. In EFL setting, the utilization of bolster procedures was actually more as these techniques were intended to enhance understanding. In one of his studies, Michael (1998) expressed that low achievers utilized a lexicon to comprehend their perusing. Also, Nunan (1991) additionally expressed that the feeble dialect learner has depended on a word reference more than improved dialect learners have done.

Other move down techniques e.g. perusing so anyone might hear, summarizing and talking about with others were likewise averagely utilized by the understudies to offer them some assistance with translating viably.

Table 2: Back Up Strategies


Back Up Strategies




I take notes while reading to help me understand what I want to translate.




When the text becomes difficult, I read aloud to help me understand what I want to translate.




I summarize what I read before translation to reflect on important information in the text.




I discuss what I translate with others to check my understanding.




I underline or circle information in the text to help me remember it.




I use reference materials such as dictionaries to help me understand what I want to translate.




I paraphrase (restate ideas in my own words) to better understand what I want to translate.




I go back and forth in the text to find relationships among ideas in it.




I ask myself questions I like to have answered in the text.



Into the classification of critical thinking systems, every one of the eight techniques were accounted for to be of continuous use. This demonstrated learners were generally aware of their perception prepare and could change proper activities when understanding turns down. As a sample, when a content develops troublesome, they 'translate again to see better' (M = 4.41, SD = 0.89) 'and 'give careful consideration to what material they are perusing' (M=4.43, SD=0.67). When they have confronted obscure words or expressions, they have 'attempted to figure the significance (M=4.12, SD=0.74). In light of the incessant utilization of this technique (M=3.63-4.43), it can be said that these learners utilized critical thinking systems to determine their understanding issues when the content has become troublesome.

Table 3: Problem Solving Strategies


Problem Solving Strategies




I read slowly but carefully to be sure I understand what I'm translating.




I try to get back on track when I lose concentration.




I adjust my reading speed according to what I'm translating.




When text becomes difficult, I pay closer attention to what I'm translating.




I stop from time to time and think about what I'm translating.




I try to picture or visualize information to help remember what I want to translate.




When text becomes difficult; I re-translate to increase my understanding.




I try to guess the meaning of unknown words or phrases.



A more profound update of the information as per the three subscales of the poll showed a scope of metacognitive technique use from moderate to high (M=3.38-4.10). To the extent the three classes of techniques were concerned, the learners demonstrated abnormal state utilization of worldwide systems (M=3.73, SD=0.53) move down methodologies (M= 3.38, SD=0.62) and critical thinking procedures (M=4.10, SD=0.49). Table 4 had given effective data about the general inclination of the learners' said technique use. The outcomes obviously demonstrated that the learners knew about the techniques and made use of them every now and again to screen their perusing appreciation.

Table 4: Metacognitive Strategy Use (N=30)

Strategy Type



Metacognitive Strategies



Back Up Strategies



Problem Solving Strategies



The two experimental and control group participated in translation test. The experimental group were translating under the impact of metacognitive translator training, simultaneously the control group were translating but unlike the experimental group, they were trained with normal and common translator training methodologies. The results for both groups and the observable high variation among both groups' results indicate that the experimental group that were trained under the impact of metacognitive translator training, translated all of the text that they were given, even the difficult parts of the text had been covered with the presumed usage of references and materials they were allowed to use, and gained better scores otherwise the control group which were trained with common ongoing translator training methods in their university, translated only the parts that they could've fully understand and skipped almost all of difficult parts of the text, and gained less scores.

Respondents                                                                                                                                                            Mean


Experimental Group                                                                                                                                                18.25

Control Group


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