The subject of this dissertation is children’s literature and the translation of books for children. Various aspects of both these subjects are discussed in order to present a comprehensive overview of this field. A definition and a review of the subject of children’s literature are given. The problems of adult dominance are examined, particularly in the sections on “Asymmetry”, “Selection”, “Ambivalence” and “Manipulation”. Cultural differences are highlighted and their implications for the translation of children’s literature pointed out, and particular emphasis is placed on the common translation strategy of cultural and moral adaptations of the source text. The roles of author, translator and publisher are explored. Particular emphasis is placed on the financial side of the book industry, involving the issues of book fairs and co-productions. The world-wide significance and dominance of the English language is shown, elucidating the problem of major and lesser used languages. The connection with Polysystem Theory is also described. The question of power is found to be a central issue in children’s literature and, therefore, is given special consideration. An attempt is made to identify the major sources of power and discuss their effects. Finally, some case studies are included to complete the picture and to serve as examples of what has been discussed in the previous four chapters.