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Translation of Terms Related to Iranian New Year in Tourism Industry: Inadequacies and Solutions

Abstract

International tourism, as one of the biggest and the most dynamic industries in the world, inevitably influences all the aspects of social life, including language. The development of international tourism has given rise to increase in professional communication in the field. The present study goes to find out whether inadequate translation of cultural issues in tourist guide texts in Iran is the reason of failure in communication and therefore, inadequacy to attract tourists. The present research aims at investigating tourist terms found in different types of tourist texts, such as brochure, a leaflet, or a catalog with special focus on terms related to Iranian New Year. The translation in its own right needs to be at the service of the communicative goals. This very qualification, acting as a pass, is acquired only if the goal of the source text is determined primarily and is reproduced with the same power, effect, appeal, and apprehension in the target text. This study has tried to demonstrate that determining the goal of the original properly and using appropriate translation procedures can be better achieved from a Skopos theory perspective which acts on behalf of the customs in this transit and checks the translator several times during this process. Therefore, different tourist guides, which was translated by Iranian translator, were compared at word level to find the cases of inappropriate translation procedures used for cultural issues and present solutions from a Skopos theory perspective.

Key words:

Translation, Adequate Translation, Communication, Cultureof Iranian New Year, Tourist Guide texts, SKOPOS THEORY,

1. Introduction

Translation of tourist guide texts in a country like Iran is of great importance. A point to note is that although most of the works in tourism filed have attempted to take new steps in the development of local tourism industry, especially in enhancing the number of foreign tourists, they have rarely taken into consideration the role of language and linguistic issues at work in attracting or distracting tourists. Almost no reference was found about tourist guide texts and tour guides as important factors of introducing Iran and Iranian culture to the world. Tourist guide texts with the communicative goals embedded in them are greatly in hand of culture because communication is obviously possible by means of language and language can’t exist unless it is steeped in the context of culture. Culture itself needs a medium like translation to move to a new context. Translation, as a cross-cultural communication agent, should have its own qualifications. It should move beyond linguistic and cultural barriers and act as a bridge between source and targetlanguage and culture (House, 2009).

In each communication which is the exchange of ideas, and information between two or more people there's usually at least one sender, a message which is transmitted, and a person for whom this message is intended-the receiver (Richards, 1985). On the one hand, both parties are affected by the culture of the society in which they are living. On the other hand, much of the lexis of a language which constitutes the message has a cultural referent and is thus specific to a speech community. The meaning of culturally marked words is often difficult to grasp without some cultural knowledge and poses translation problems, particularly when the words are associated with cultural domains (Nida, 2001). Therefore, in a cross-cultural communication success or failure is in hand of the translation.

Some studies have been done on translation of guide texts and cultural elements embedded in them. But they have rarely been about Iran and Iranian New Year Ceremonies or suggested solutions for the current problems. So this study is going to find the cases of inappropriate translation procedures used for cultural elements and suggest solutions from a Skopos theory perspective.

World Tourism Organization (WTO) statistics show that the ratio of domestic tourists to inbound tourists in Iran is ten to one! (Nobakht& Piruz, 2008) The problem to some extent traces back to inadequate translations of Tourist guide texts which do not communicate with the TR because of blindness to cultural differences.

This study aims at showing dramatic effect of cultural issues on the communication process in translating tourist guide texts, suggesting Skopos Theory as the guaranteed foundation in selecting proper translation procedures, and providing guidelines for Iranian MA students of translation to translate tourism texts adequately. Also, the results will be useful to Iranian tour guides in order to know the importance of the language they use.

2. Review of the Literature

A recent review of the literature on the topic of translating tourist texts as the type of specialized discourse has found that there is a considerable amount of literature on translating specialized texts. Eugene Nida (1964), Peter Newmark (1993) have made thorough research into translation of different types of specialized discourse.

The study of terminology by Juan Sager (2001), M. Teresa Cabré (2010), Márta Fischer (2010) and others provide an in-depth studies and background information pertaining to terms and their translation.

Peter Newmark (1993), Alan Duff (1981), Mary Snell-Hornby (1999) make rather negative comments regarding the quality of translation in the tourism sector of economy. Dorothy Kelly (1997) deals with some constraints the translator of the tourist literature is challenged with. She emphasizes the need to professionalize the translation process in the sector of international tourism. Gloria Cappelli (2006) devotes a number of her works to different aspects of tourism texts and their translation. She investigates inter alia the degree of specialization of tourism discourse and translation of tourism-related websites. Another examples would be A talk on the translation of tourism advertisements (Nan, 2005), Tourist guidebooks and the image of Sicily in translation (Smecca, 2009), and Skopos theory and translating strategies of cultural elements (Su-zhen, 2008).

Since the mentioned studies couldn’t fully cover the communicative goals of tourist guide texts and their solutions were not backed by a translation theory, there is still a need for the careful investigation into the types of tourist terms, degree of their specialization and means of their translation.

3. Skopos Theory

Skopos is the Greek word for ‘aim’ or ‘purpose’ and was introduced into translation theory in the 1970s by Hans J. Vermeer as a technical term for the purpose of a translation and of the action of translating. Skopos theory focuses on the purpose of the translation, which determines the translation methods and strategies that are to be employed in order to produce a functionally adequate result. This result is the TT, which Vermeer calls the translatum. Therefore, in Skopos theory, knowing why a ST is to be translated and what the function of the TT will be are crucial for the translator.

The basic underlying rules of Skopos theory are:

  1. translatum (or TT) is determined by its Skopos.
  2. A TT is an offer of information (informationsangebot) in a target culture and TL concerning an offer of information in a source culture and SL.
  3. A TT doesn’t initiate an offer of information in a clearly reversible way.
  4. A TT must be internally coherent (coherence rule).
  5. A TT must be coherent with the ST (fidelity rule).

An important advantage of Skopos theory is that it allows the possibility of the same text being translated in different ways according to the purpose of the TT and the commission which is given to the translator.

Paying deserved attention to target culture is in line with the principles of Skopos theory. So, with referring to the dichotomy of translation strategies as domestication and foreignizing, the strategy selected by Skopos theory is domesticating (Rahimi, 2008).

4. Methodology

A descriptive method of research was used to collect data, find possible solutions for the existing translation problems of selected tourist guide texts and draw conclusions of the study. Therefore, the present study tried to find the cases of inappropriate translation procedures used for cultural elements in these texts based on a functional theory of translation (Skopos theory). In interpreting the results, this study took mostly a qualitative approach to research. Four tourist guide texts, mainly about the culture of Iranian New Year, were selected and the translation procedures at the level of word were observed. The texts were selected because of their focus on the cultural elements of Iranian New Year and they were available to the tourists. Moreover to have a fair evaluation of the translation of cultural elements, the following books were consulted and frequently referred to throughout the research:

1. Esfandyari, K. (2014). English for Iranian Tourist Guides. Tehran: Mahkame Publication.

2. Encyclopedia of Tourism. (2000). NY: Routledge

5. Procedures

First, in data analysis, translated tourist texts were compared at word level to find examples of different translation procedures used for cultural elements. The above mentioned examples were listed in separate tables.

Next, considering the basic underlying principles of Skopos theory, the cases of inappropriate translation procedures were found among those listed in previous part.

Then, the percentage of different translation procedures and their inadequacies were listed in separate tables and clustered bars.

After that, in the discussion part, the reasons for inappropriate translation procedures used for Iranian New Year cultural elements were given based on Skopos theory.

Finally, in cross-cultural communication a successful translation makes slight sacrifice to accuracy of ST in favor of sensitivity to the target reader’s culture (Solange Mahi, 1993), adequate translations were given which are believed to have the least amount of noise and redundancy; hence they highly cooperate with the communication theory.

6. Data Analysis and Results

In this part, elicited data were listed in separate tables at word level. Each table includes four columns: 1. the number, 2. Persian term 3. English translation, and 4. Translation procedure. The page number along with the abbreviated name of the text was also given in the corresponding cell.

Abbreviated name of the tourist guide texts:

1- Nowruz Persian Culture Show (NPCS),

2- Iranian American Lawyer Association (IALA)

3- Massoume Price (NP), and

4- Asian Education (EA)

The cases of inappropriate translation procedures were marked with asterisks in the tables.

Table 6.1 Elicited Data for Translation Procedures of NPCS

No

Persian Text

English Translation

Translation Procedure

1

نوروز

Nowruz (meaning ‘New Day’), NPCS, p1

Transference and Paraphrase

2

زرتشتی

 

Zoroastrian, NPCS, P1

Naturalization

3

چهارشنبه سوری

 

Chaharshanbe-Suri, NPCS, P2

*Transference

4

آجیل

 

Ajeel (mixed nuts and berries),NPCS, P2

Transference and paraphrase

5

چهل ستون

 

Chehel Sotoun, NPCS, P2

*Transference

6

صفویه

 

Safavieh, NPCS, P2

*Transference

7

سیزده بدر

 

Sizdah Be-Dar (getting rid of thirteen), NPCS, P2

*Transference and paraphrase

8

فروردین

 

Farvardin, NPCS, P2

*Transference

9

سبزه

Sabzeh, NPCS, P2

*Transference

10

ایزد

Yazat (Zoroastrian deity) , NPCS, P2

Naturalization and Paraphrase

11

هفت سین

Haft Sin ( the seven ‘S’s), NPCS, P2

*Transference and Paraphrase

12

سین

S ( Sin in the Persian alphabet), NPCS,P2

*Naturalization and Paraphrase

13

سبزه

Sabzeh (wheat, barley, or lentil sprouts growing in a dish), NPCS,P2

Transference and paraphrase

14

سمنو

Samanu (a sweet pudding made from wheat germ), NPCS, P2

Transference and paraphrase

15

سنجد

Senjed (the dried fruit of the oleaster tree), NPCS, P2

Transference and paraphrase

16

سیر

Sir (garlic), NPCS, P2

Transference and literal translation

17

سیب

Sib (apple), NPCS, P2

Transference and literal translation

18

سماق

Somaq (sumac berries), NPCS, P2

Transference and literal translation

19

سرکه

Serkeh (vinegar), NPCS, P2

Transference and literal translation

20

ماهی قرمز

Gold fish, NPCS, P2

Functional equivalent

Table 6.2 Elicited Data for Translation Procedures of IALA

No

Persian Text

English Translation

Translation Procedure

1

نوروز

Norouz, new day or New Year, IALA, P1

Transference and literal translation

2

بین النهرین

Mesopotamia, IALA, P1

Literal translation

3

سومری ها

Sumerians, IALA, P1

Naturalization

4

بابلی ها

Babylonians, IALA, P1

Naturalization

5

ایلام

Elam, IALA, P1

Naturalization

6

چهارشنبه سوری

Chahar Shanbe Soori, IALA, P2

*Transference

7

آجیل مشکل گشا

Pastry and nuts (Ajile Moshkel Gosha), IALA, P2

*Paraphrase and literal translation

8

حاجی فیروز

Joyous ForecastersHaji Firooz, IALA, P4

*Paraphrase and Literal translation 

9

خانه تکانی

Spring cleaning, IALA, P5

Paraphrase

10

سبزه

New Year sprouts from wheat for the New Year's eve "Haft Seen", IALA, P6

*Paraphrase

11

هفت سین

Haftseen, IALA, P7

*Transference

12

سنبل

Sonbol) the fragrant hyacinth flower(, IALA, P8

Transference and literal translation

13

سکه

Sekkeh (coin), IALA, P8

Transference and literal translation

14

شاهنامه

Shahnameh, IALA, P9

*Transference

15

عیدی

Eidi (New Year's gift), IALA, p10

Transference and paraphrase

16

آش رشته

special noodle soup, IALA, P11

*Paraphrase

 

 

 

Table 6.3 Elicited Data for Translation Procedures of MP

1

نوروز

Nowruz, MP, P 1

*Transference

2

اهورامزدا

The Lord of Wisdom (Ahura Mazda), MP, P1

Paraphrase and Transference

3

هفت سین

“Haft Sin” (New Year ceremonial spread), MP, P1

Transference & Paraphrase

4

چهارشنبه سوری

Suri Festival, MP, P1

*Transference and literal translation

5

حاجی فیروز

Haji Firuz, a black-faced troubadour dressed in bright red who shows up a few days before Nowruz, MP, P2

Transference& Paraphrase

6

تحویل سال نو

Tahvil (the time of transformation), MP, P2

*Transference and paraphrase

7

هفت سین

Haft Sin (seven 's'), MP, P2

*Transference& Literal translation

8

اسپند

espand (wild rue), MP, P2

Transference& Literal translation

Table 6.4 Elicited Data for Translation Procedures of AE

No

Persian Text

English Translation

Translation Procedure

1

سبزه

'sabzeh' (meaning green shoots), AE, P2

Transference and literal translation

2

نوروز

The Persian New Year celebration, Nowruz, AE, P2

Paraphrase and Transference

3

تخت جمشید

Persepolis, AE, P3

Naturalization

4

عمو نوروز

Uncle Nowruz, AE, P3

*Literal translation

5

شاهنامه

Shahnameh (Book of Kings), AE, P3

*Transference and Literal translation

6

تخت جمشید

Throne of Jamshid (Takht-e-Jamshid), AE, P2

Literal translation and transference

7

چهارشنبه سوری 

fire-jumping ritual, AE, P4

*Paraphrase

8

سیزده بدر

Sizdah Bedar, or “thirteen outdoors", AE, P5

*Transference and literal translation

9

قرآن

The Quran (Muslim holy book), EA, P5

Literal translation and paraphrase

10

سبزی پلو ماهی

dish of fish and herbed rice, called Sabzi Polo Mahi, EA, P5

Paraphrase and transference

11

دید و بازدید

Deed-O-Bazdeed, which is when they reunite with their families, EA, P5

Transference and praphrase

12

عیدی

Eidi, or gifts of money, EA, P5

Transference and praphrase

 

Translation Procedure

   

PERCENTAGE

Transference & Paraphrase

   

23%

Naturalization

   

8%

Transference 

   

16%

Naturalization & Paraphrase

   

3%

Transference & Literal Translation

   

23%

Functional Equivalence

   

1%

Paraphrase & Literal Translation

   

3%

Paraphrase 

   

7%

Literal Translation

   

3%

Literal Translation & Paraphrase

   

1%

Literal Translation & Transference

   

1%

Paraphrase & Transference

   

5%


 


                                                                             

Appropriate/Inappropriate Translation Procedures 

 

Percentage

Appropriate Translation Procedures 

 

58%

Inappropriate Transference & Paraphrase

 

5%

Inappropriate Naturalization

 

0

Inappropriate Transference 

 

16%

Inappropriate Naturalization & Paraphrase

 

1%

Inappropriate Transference & Literal Translation

 

7%

Inappropriate Functional Equivalence

 

0%

Inappropriate Paraphrase & Literal Translation

 

3%

Inappropriate Paraphrase

 

5%

Inappropriate Paraphrase & Transference

 

0%

Inappropriate Literal Translation

 

1%

Inappropriate Literal Translation & Transference

 

0%

Inappropriate Literal Translation & Paraphrase

 

0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Discussion

As stated earlier, a number of studies have been done about translation of tourist guide texts and cultural elements embedded in them. The main concern of these studies was to introduce a special site and remove obstacles. They believed that culture plays a significant role in these texts and culture-bound issues need proper attention. They also referred to some translation problems in this respect and suggested cultural transposition, calque, cultural borrowing, and communicative translation as solution. They emphasized the role of a good translation as a medium which is able to meet the expectations of the TR in tourist guide texts in this cross-cultural movement.

But the mentioned studies have rarely used a translation theory to back their solutions. They have not fully covered the communicative goals of tourist guide texts. They have seldom been about Iran and Iranian New Year Ceremonies; and the studies about Iran haven’t been comprehensive enough. So this study suggests Skopos theory as a tool for assessing the adequacy of the translation procedures used for cultural elements, with special emphasize on Iranian New Year Ceremonies, in tourist guide texts and solving the present problems.

In this part, the analyzed data and results from the previous part are discussed in terms of finding a translation procedure for better domesticating of the cultural terms.

First, four English tourist guide texts and their Persian translations were investigated carefully, different translation procedures along with their inappropriate cases were identified and the percentage of each one was illustrated in separate tables and clustered bars. Through the examination of statistical analysis shown in tables 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 6.4 the following results were obtained.

Among the 56 cases found for different translation procedures used for cultural elements at word level, 23 cases were inappropriate which constitute 42% of the whole results. The highest frequency belonged to inappropriate transference (16%).

Considering the above mentioned percentage of the cases of inappropriate translation procedures used for cultural elements at word level in tourist guide texts in Iran, the claims made by previous studies about the importance of cultural elements embedded in tourist guide texts, and the communicative goals of these texts, the following point can be made: ignoring or not paying deserved attention to the translation of cultural issues in tourist guide texts in Iran is the reason of failure in communication and therefore, inadequacy to attract tourists.

At this stage, problem identifying, assessing (finding the cases of inappropriate translation procedures and giving reasons for them) and solving (rendering adequate translations) will be directed by help of Skopos theory.

7.1 Discussing the Results at Word Level

The following results are related to the cases of inappropriate translation procedures at word level marked with asterisks in tables 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.

7.1.1 Transference

Problems: چهارشنبه سوری Chaharshanbe-Suri,Chahar Shanbe Soori /چهل ستونChehel Sotoun/صفویهSafavieh/ فروردین Farvardin/سبزهSabzeh/هفت سین Haftseen/شاهنامه  Shahnameh/نوروز Nowruz/

Transference of the above words is not informative enough in the TT. Therefore, the maxim of quantity is violated. They are not coherent with the TT receiver’s situation; they don’t allow the TR to reach a coherent interpretation of the TT. They are not functionally appropriate in the TT and therefore, they don’t communicate with the TT receivers.

Adequate translations:

Chaharshanbe-Suri (an Iranian festival celebrated on the evening of the last Wednesday before Nowruz (the Iranian New Year))

Chehel Sotoun (is a pavilion in the middle of a park at the far end of a long pool, in IsfahanIran, built by Shah Abbas II to be used for his entertainment and receptions)

Safavieh must be replaced with: TheSafavid dynasty

Farvardin (is the first month of the official calendar of Iran, begins on March 19 or 22, and ends on April 18 or 21)

Sabzeh (wheatbarley, or lentilsprouts growing in a dish - symbolizing rebirth)

Haftseen (is a tabletop arrangement of seven symbolic items traditionally displayed at Nowruz, the Persian New Year)

Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings", is a long epic poem written by the Persian poetFerdowsi)

Nowruz (IranianNew Year)

Using both transference and paraphrase (in the text) provides the target receiver with enough information and the problem with the maxim of quantity will be solved. Therefore, they will communicate appropriately with the target receiver.

7.1.2 Transference and Literal translation

Problems:  چهارشنبه سوری Suri Festival/هفت سین (seven‘s’)/شاهنامه Shahnameh (Book of Kings)/سیزده بدر Sizdah Bedar, or “thirteen outdoor”/

The translation of the above words are not informative enough in the TT. Transferring هفت سینas(seven ‘s’ ) shares no cultural information with the TT reader. This is the case for Sizdah Bedar. Translating it to “thirteen outdoor” will give no view of this festival to the TT reader.

Adequate translations:

Chaharshanbe-Suri (an Iranian festival celebrated on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz (the Iranian New Year))

Haftseen (is a tabletop arrangement of seven symbolic items traditionally displayed at Nowruz, the Persian New Year)

Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings", is a long epic poem written by the Persian poetFerdowsi)

Sizdah Bedar (an Iranian festival held annually on the thirteenth day of Farvardin (the first month of the Iranian calendar), during which people spend time picnicking outdoors)

7.1.3 Transference and Paraphrase

Problems: سیزده بدر Sizdah Be-Dar (getting rid of thirteen)/ هفت سینHaft Sin (the seven “S”s) /         

تحویل سال نو Tahvil /

Translating سیزده بدر as “getting rid of thirteen” is not informative enough and does not communicate with the TT receiver. It does not result in a coherent interpretation in the TT. The case of هفت سین has been talked about previously. Finally, the translation of Tahvil has ambiguity and results in confusion.

Adequate translations:

Sizdah Bedar (an Iranian festival held annually on the thirteenth day of Farvardin (the first month of the Iranian calendar), during which people spend time picnicking outdoors)

Haftseen (is a tabletop arrangement of seven symbolic items traditionally displayed at Nowruz, the Persian New Year)

Tahvil (Timeand Date of Iranian Persian New Year)

Adding a “proper and suitable” paraphrase will help the TR to have a coherent interpretation.

7.1.4 Paraphrase

Problems: سبزه New Year sprouts from wheat for the New Year’s Eve “Haft Seen”/آش رشتهspecial noodle soup/چهارشنبه سوریfire-jumping ritual

In the case of translating for tourists and when the most important reason of translating is “communication and culture-introduction”, just paraphrasing will not meet the needs. In such a case, Transference must come with paraphrase. In the case of چهارشنبه سوری, it is better not to use “ritual”, because the mentioned term is mostly used for religious ceremonies.

Adequate translations:   

Sabzeh (wheatbarley, or lentilsprouts growing in a dish - symbolizing rebirth)

Ashe Reshte (a type of thick soup featuring thin noodles)

Chaharshanbe-Suri (an Iranian festival celebrated on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz (the Iranian New Year))

7.1.5 Paraphrase and Literal Translation

Problems: آجیل مشکل گشا Pastry and nuts (Ajile Moshkel Gosha)/حاجی فیروز (Joyous Forecasters Haji Firooz)

The above paraphrases do not communicate useful information in the TT.

Adequate translations:

Ajile Moshkel Gosha (a mix of diverse dried nuts and fruits that is served during Nowruz (Iranian New Year) in Iran. It is popularly believed that by making a wish and eating it, a problem will be resolved).

Hajji Firuz (a fictional character in Iranian folklore who appears in the streets by the beginning of Nowruz. His face is covered in soot, and he is clad in bright red clothes and a felt hat. He dances through the streets while singing and playing a tambourine, and is the companion of Amu Nowruz ("Uncle Nowruz").

The above advised translation sound more clear in the TT, and communicates appropriately with the TR.

7.1.6 Naturalization and Paraphrase

Problem: سینS (sin in the Persian alphabet)

Translating سین as “sin” in English will confuse the TT reader at the first glance. So it is better to paraphrase it as bellow:

Adequate translation: letter 'S' or Sīn (س), the 15th letter in Persian alphabet

It is communicative enough in the TT.

7.1.7 Literal Translation

Problem: عمو نوروز (Uncle Nowruz)

The “Uncle Nowruz” is not clear enough in the TT. Therefore, it violates the maxim of manner and cannot communicative appropriately with the TR.

Adequate translation: Amu Nowruz (a fictional figure in Iranian folklore. According to the folklore, he appears annually at the beginning of spring, together with his companion Haji Firuz, to mark the beginning of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year).

 It fully communicates with the TT receiver.

Considering the above detailed discussions, it’s obvious that Skopos theory was successful in problem identifying (finding the cases of inappropriate translation procedures) and solving (rendering adequate translations) for cultural elements in tourist guide texts. In some cases, it took advantage of communication theory and cooperative principles which are closely interwoven with this theory and its principles.

Comparing the findings of this study with the previous studies, it can be mentioned that the processes of problem identifying and solving for cultural elements in tourist guide texts can be better achieved through a functional, TT-oriented theory like Skopos theory.

8. Conclusion

Based on the discussion of the results the following findings were elicited:

1. Transference, naturalization, transference and paraphrase, transference and literal translation, literal translation, naturalization and paraphrase, functional equivalence, paraphrase and literal translation, paraphrase, paraphrase and transference, literal translation and transference, and literal translation and paraphrase were identified as translation procedures used at word level based on their respective frequency. 42% of the above translation procedures were inappropriate whose subsequent negative effects on the process of cross-cultural communication are tangible in the existing tourist guide texts.

2. Considering the above findings, it is concluded that ignoring or not paying deserved attention to the translation of cultural issues in tourist guide texts in Iran is the reason behind failure in communication and therefore, inadequacy to attract tourist.

Translation of tourist guide texts deals with culture bound issues. Cultural mindset and interpretive filters differ between languages. Therefore, translation process as a kind of language in interlingual communication should be able to minimize cultural ambiguities. It should provide the TR with a coherent TT by considering his situation and cultural background. It should also conserve the SL writer’s message. Using Skopos theory can help us determine the goal of original (communication) in tourist guide texts. It also helps us identify the cases of inappropriate translation procedures, give reasons for them, suggest solutions, select the best one, and defend its selection by help of its underlying rules and principles, and taking advantage of communication theory and cooperative principles. Translation produced by help of Skopos theory is a natural, clear, fluent, intelligible, and homogeneous one which is in line with the goals of domestication.

 

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