Volume 14, No. 1 
January 2010

 


 
 

Front Page



 
 
 
Select one of the previous 50 issues.

 
Index 1997-2009

 
TJ Interactive: Translation Journal Blog

 
  Translator Profiles
Twenty Years of Steady Workload
by Andrei Gerasimov

 
  The Profession
The Bottom Line

by Fire Ant & Worker Bee

 
  Translators Around the World
Where Can I Find a Chinese Sworn Translator in Rio de Janeiro?
by Danilo Nogueira and Kelli Semolini

 
  Cultural Aspects of Translation
Culture-Specific Items in Literary Translations
by Sepideh Firoozkoohi

 
  Medical Translation
How Many Varieties of Medical Practice Are There?
by Rafael A. Rivera, M.D., FACP

 
  Science & Technology
Translating a Patent: Translator's Templates
by Kriemhild (Karen) Zerling

 
  Translators and the Computer
Automatic Web Translators as Part of a Multilingual Question-Answering (QA) System: Translation of Questions
by Lola García-Santiago and María-Dolores Olvera-Lobo
 
The Efficacy of Round-trip Translation for MT Evaluation
by Milam Aiken and Mina Park

 
  Arts & Entertainment
Empirical Study of Subtitled Movies
by Maria Bernschütz, Ph.D.

 
  Literary Translation
La influencia de Voltaire en el primer Hamlet español
Laura Campillo Arnaiz

 
  Translators' Education
English Language Teaching Through the Translation Method (A Practical Approach to Teaching Mongolian CPAs)
by Dr. Naveen K. Mehta

 
  Translators' Tools
Pondering and Wondering
by Jost Zetzsche
 
Translators’ Emporium

 
  Caught in the Web
Web Surfing for Fun and Profit
by Cathy Flick, Ph.D.
 
Translators’ On-Line Resources
by Gabe Bokor
 
Translators’ Best Websites
by Gabe Bokor

 
Call for Papers and Editorial Policies
  Translation Journal


Factory
 
 

Translating a Patent:

Translator's Templates

by Kriemhild Zerling


Part II: The Specification

orking on the basis of Part I [cf. translationjournal.net/journal/50patents.htm], which focused on reducing the cover sheet of a patent to a template that simultaneously discloses the key terminology of the specification, the purpose of the following article is to analyze the specification itself as a template.

The patent specification is a legal document, the form and content of which must satisfy the predefined requirements set forth by the pertinent patent office.
For those who are unfamiliar with patents, I would like to point out that the strategy of discussing the patent document from the viewpoint of the cover and then the specification was chosen strictly for the purpose of dividing the umbrella topic—patent translation—into manageable portions. It should not be interpreted to mean that the cover page is a separate and unrelated entity that is followed sequentially by the next self-contained module—the specification. To the contrary, the cover page and the specification are two interrelated components that share several features. First of all, the title on the cover page is often the preamble of the claim (states the features relating to the prior art); second, the abstract, which may be included on the cover sheet, is a short summary of the invention or is often the first claim. For this reason many translators will translate everything on the cover page, except the abstract and then jump to the technical field (indicated by the class number on the cover page) and the background art, which yields additional information about the known art and supplies useful vocabulary for the invention. In many cases the translation of the solution to the problem is also the characterizing feature of the independent claims and the details of the embodiment of the invention will form the characterizing feature of the dependent claims. In the end, the claims will be a repetition of the disclosure. If the abstract is the main claim, then it can be copied and pasted on the cover; if the abstract is a description of the invention, it is even more expedient and logical to translate first the specification, in particular, the detailed disclosure of the invention, and then lastly the abstract on the cover page.

Before starting the analysis of the specification, it is important to observe that national regulations treat patent applications in more or less detail for the purpose of facilitating the patenting procedure. Hence, for the German patent translator with an eye towards incorporating the exact terminology that influenced the initial drafting of a German specification, such publications as the "Information for Patent Applicants" and the "Ordinance on Patent Procedures", provided by the German Patent and Trademark Office (DPMA) [at www.dpma.de], will offer guidelines on the minimum content and format requirements for disclosing an invention and at the same time also the corresponding terms in English. In view of the international legal standardization and the European patent laws, it is particularly advantageous for understanding patent language to add at least those regulations and guidelines of the European Patent Convention and the Patent Co-operation Treaty that can be found, for example, in the "Guidelines for Examination in the European Patent Office" [at www.epo.org] and the "PCT International Search and Preliminary Examination Guidelines" [at www.wipo.int/pct/]. Similarly in order to complete the list of internal patent office directives that are useful for selecting English expressions that come the closest to the German expressions, it would be beneficial to include the "Manual of Patent Examining Procedure" (MPEP), prepared by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) [at www.uspto.gov], for comparison purposes. When these various publications are placed side by side as in the following table, it becomes clear that, irrespective of the particular requirements controlling the initial drafting of the specification, it must include at least the following elements:

    • the title
    • the technical field, to which the invention belongs
    • the background, including references, and the drawbacks or deficiencies of the solutions known to the applicant
    • the problem to be solved by the invention and
    • the solution proposed by the invention for solving the problem
    • a description of at least one embodiment (how to carry out the invention) with reference to the drawings, if any, and the reference numerals and symbols
    • the advantages achieved by the invention
    • the claims and
    • the abstract

OVERVIEW OF THE CONTENT OF THE SPECIFICATION

DPMA

EPO

PCT

USPTO

Title

Title

Title

Title

     

Cross reference to related applications

     

Statement regarding federally sponsored research or development

     

Reference to a sequence listing

State of the art

Technical field

Technical field

Background:

a) Field of the invention

References

Background art

Background art

b) Description of the related art

Problem

Problem and solution

Disclosure of the invention, i.e. problem and solution

Brief summary of the invention

Advantages to be achieved

Advantageous effects

   

Further embodiment of the invention

     

Description of one or several modes of carrying out the invention

Brief description of the drawings

Brief description of the drawings

Brief description of the drawings

 

Describe how to carry out the invention

Describe how to carry out the invention

Detailed description of the invention

   

Best mode for carrying out the invention

Best mode of operation

 

Industrial application

Industrial application

 

Claim(s)

Claim(s)

Claim(s)

Claim(s)

Abstract

Abstract

Abstract

Abstract

Having completed the preliminary step of laying the foundation for understanding the elements comprising the specification on the basis of the same reference material that the applicant used to draft the patent, the next step is to apply this information to the specific specification to be translated. As a rule, patent office guidelines do not refer to an actual specification, but rather provide pointers in the form of a phrase or one or two sentences as an illustration. Such an approach, which gives little more than a skeletal outline, conveys at best a general sense of the relationship of the various elements and their interaction, but at the expense of the fine points of writing a patent. The only way that a translator can get an idea of the particular way in which patents are written is to read the patents, filed by the agent or attorney responsible for filing the patent under discussion, because it is very likely that the attorney concerned has a template that he applies to each new patent application. Hence, the writing style of any patent is virtually a formula, which the patent attorney has constructed from a number of preferred phrases and expressions that are linked together by a finite set of possible connectors or flags. In order to demonstrate when and where these linguistic flags appear in a patent, the entire German specification of the DE 3443274 [see the original at http://ep.espacenet.com] is reproduced below together with an English translation (any errors or omissions in this translation are mine alone). Of all of the patents that are available, the DE 3443274 suggests itself primarily on account of its brevity and writing style that is typical of the German patent. Of course, the one drawback with a short specification is its limited set of examples of patent specific terminology. For this reason, the explanatory notes on the left hand side also include frequently used alternative expressions.

 

EXAMPLE—DE 34 43 274

Title

The title is a technical description of the invention and is the same as on the cover page. In many cases it is also the same as the preamble, i.e. the introductory portion of the claim.

 

Gerät zum Beseitigen von Gerüchen in Kühlschränken od. dergl.

Device for Eliminating Odors in Refrigerators or the Like

Field of the invention

This section is typically one sentence, describing the field of the invention, and begins with the phrase:

Die Erfindung betrifft ... (eine Vorrichtung bzw. ein Verfahren) The invention relates to a (device and/or method)...

It may repeat or just refer to the preamble of the independent claim.

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Brennverfahren, ..., mit den Merkmalen aus dem Oberbegriff des Patentanspruchs 1.

The invention relates to a combustion method, ..., comprising the features disclosed in the preamble of patent claim 1.

 

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Gerät zum Beseitigen von Gerüchen, die von Nahrungsmitteln und anderen Gütern ausgehen, die in Kühlschränken od. dergl. aufbewahrt werden.

The invention relates to a device for eliminating odors, which are emitted by foodstuffs and other goods that are stored in refrigerators or the like.

Background art of the invention

The purpose of this section is to mention any prior art documents, such as patents and scientific articles, that are useful for understanding the invention. It describes the state of the art so as to pinpoint the technical area of the patent. In particular, it highlights how previous efforts have failed or what problems have not been solved. The key word in this section is "Nachteile" (drawbacks or disadvantages).

 

Derartige, mehr oder weniger stark auftretende Gerüche haben oft zur Folge, dass andere, im Kühlschrank lagernde Güter Fremdgerüche annehmen und dadurch in ihrer Qualität beeinträchtigt werden können.

As a consequence of such more or less strong odors, other goods stored in the refrigerator may assume off-odors and, thus, may suffer a reduction in quality.

Disclosure of the invention

A. Defines the problem

The disclosure indicates the technical problem that the invention is designed to solve. Examples of some common formulations introducing this section include:

Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde ... zu schaffen...

The invention is based on the problem of providing... OR

Es ist die Aufgabe der Erfindung, diese Nachteile zu vermeiden...

It is the object of the invention to avoid these drawbacks...

 

Es stellt sich somit die Aufgabe, ein preiswertes Gerät zu schaffen, das wenig Raum beansprucht und über längere Zeit hinweg die von den im Kühlschrank lagernden Nahrungsmitteln ausgehenden Gerüche beseitigt bzw. an sich bindet.

Therefore, the object of the invention is to provide an inexpensive device, which requires little space and over a prolonged period of time eliminates or binds the odors emitted by the foodstuffs stored in the refrigerator.

B. Elucidates the solution

The solution can be explained by repeating or referring to the characterizing portion of the independent claims.

The solution is often worded so as to complement the problem:

Diese Aufgabe wird erfindungsgemäss dadurch gelöst, dass...

The invention solves this problem in that...

 

Diese Aufgabe wird durch ein Gerät mit den im Patentanspruch 1 gekennzeichneten Merkmalen gelöst.

This object is achieved by a device exhibiting the features characterized in patent claim 1.

C. Details

The details of the embodiment of the invention are set forth in this section and usually appear again in the characterizing portion of the dependent claims. Even if the reference to the dependent claim is not explicitly stated, it can be identified by such suggestive phrases as:

Ein wesentlicher Vorteil der Erfindung besteht darin, dass...

One important advantage of the invention lies in the fact that...

Eine besonders bevorzugte Ausgestaltung der Erfindung sieht vor...

An especially preferred embodiment of the invention provides...

Ebenfalls bevorzugt ist, dass...

Similarly it is preferred that...

Ferner ist besonders bevorzugt, dass...

Furthermore, it is especially preferred that ...

Schliesslich ist vorteilhaft...

Finally it is advantageous...

 

Dieses neuartige Gerät kann einfach in den Lagerraum des Kühlschranks gestellt, oder in diesem aufgehängt werden und beseitigt, bzw. bindet die auftretenden Gerüche über mehrere Wochen hinweg auf gesundheitlich unbedenkliche Weise. Das Gerät kann dann entweder als Ganzes ausgewechselt werden, oder es wird bei anderen Ausführungsarten lediglich die Wirkstoff-Füllung ausgewechselt.

Vorteilhafte Ausgestaltungen der Erfindung, insbesondere auch hinsichtlich des Mischungsverhältnisses der Wirkstoff-Füllung sind in den Unteransprüchen gekennzeichnet.

This novel device can be put or hung easily into the storage space of the refrigerator and eliminates or binds in a hygienically safe manner any odors, which may be produced, for several weeks. Then the device may be either replaced in its entirety; or in the case of other embodiments, only the active substance filling is replaced.

Advantageous embodiments of the invention, in particular also in regard to the mix ratio of the active substance filling, are characterized in the dependent claims.

Brief description of the drawings

This section lists the drawings attached to the specification and to some extent the reference numerals. If this section appears to be worthless, then consider translating a patent that relates to the novel method of molding a shoe sole and then dwells on the preferred and optional shapes. In that case the drawings will be of special interest because of the graphical rendering of the shapes under discussion.

A common formulation that signals the beginning of the "description of the drawings" is the following example:

Im Folgenden wird die Erfindung anhand von Beispielen unter Bezugnahme auf die folgenden Figuren näher erläutert:

The invention is explained in detail below through the use of examples with reference to the following figures.

Der Gegenstand der Erfindung ist in zwei Ausführungsbeispielen in der Zeichnung dargestellt. Es zeigen:

Figur 1 das Gerät in Form eines dosenartigen Behälters,

Figur 2 den Behälter gemäss Figur 1 in der Seitensicht,

Figur 3 die Wirkstoff-Füllung des Behälters gemäss den Figuren 1 und 2; und

Figuren 4 und 5 ein weiteres Ausführungsbeispiel mit ringsförmigem Behälter.

The subject matter of the invention is depicted by means of two embodiments in the drawings.

Figure 1 depicts the device in the form of a can-like container;

Figure 2 is a side view of the container according to Figure 1;

Figure 3 depicts the active substance filling of the container according to Figures 1 and 2; and

Figures 4 and 5 depict additional embodiments with a ring-shaped container.

Detailed description of the invention

This section can be quite long, because it describes how to make and/or use the invention—in other words, how to carry out the invention. Hence, it is not surprising that the terminology in this section is always identical to the terminology used in the section "Disclosure of the Invention—Problem, Solution, Details". Since the intent of the detailed description is to give sufficient information to enable a person skilled in the art to carry out the invention, this section includes examples, references to the drawings, and contains the reference numerals and symbols appearing in the drawings.

Das in den Figuren 1 bis 3 dargestellte Gerät besteht aus einem dosenartigen Behälter 1 mit aufsetzbarem Deckel 2. Sowohl der Boden des Behälters 1, als zweckmässigerweise auch der Deckel 2 sind mit einer Mehrzahl von Durchlässen 3 beliebiger Form versehen. Die Wirkstoff-Füllung 4 bestehend aus einer Mischung von Cetylalkohol (C2H5OH), Borax (Na2B4O7 10H2O) und Natriumbikarbonat (NaHCO3), befindet sich in einem, in seinen Aussenmassen dem Behälter 1 entsprechenden Einsatz 5, dessen beide Stirnseiten 6 mit je einer Perforierung 16 versehen sind. Für die Lagerung und den Versand des genannten Einsatzes sind dessen Stirnseiten 6 ausserdem mit je einer abziehbaren Deckfolie 7 versehen, so dass die Füllung 4 zunächst luftdicht abgeschlossen ist.

Zum Gebrauch des Geräts werden beide Folien 7 abgezogen und dann der den Wirkstoff 4 enthaltende Einsatz 5 in den Behälter 1 eingesetzt und der Deckel 2 aufgesetzt. Damit ist das Gerät gebrauchsfertig.

Der Wirkstoff 4 kann entweder in pulveriger, oder noch besser in grobkröniger Form zu Verwendung gelangen. Ein bevorzugtes Mischungsverhältnis besteht aus 50 Gewichtsteilen Natriumbikarbonat, 2 Gewichtsteilen Borax und 2 Gewichtsteilen Cetylalkohol.

Die in den Figuren 4 und 5 dargestellte Ausführungsart besteht aus zwei ineinandergeschobenen, doppelhülsenartigen Behälterteilen 8 und 9, die je einseitig geschlossen sind.

Sowohl die Innenwände 10 und 11 dieser Behälterteile 8 und 9, als auch deren Aussenwände 12 und 13 sind mit Perforierungen 14 versehen, die so angeordnet sind, dass sie, wenn beide Behälterteile so angeordnet sind, dass sie, wenn beide Behälterteile ineinandergeschoben sind, derart miteinander übereinstimmen, dass durch einfaches gegenseitiges Verdrehen dieser Behälterteile 8 und 9 die Perforierungen 14 wahlweise geöffnet, oder geschlossen werden können, Die Wirkstoff-Füllung 4 befindet sich in der Doppelhülse des unteren Behälterteils 9 und wird zweckmässigerweise in körniger Form eingefüllt. Um ein Austreten der Füllung durch die Perforierungen 14 zu verhindern, sind die Innenwände der unteren Doppelhülse mit einer gasdurchlässigen Abdeckung 15 aus einem engmaschigen Netz, Gaze od. dergl. versehen.

Bei dieser Ausführungsart kann die Wirkstoffmischung jeweils wieder aus einer Vorratspackung nachgefüllt werden.

Ergänzend wird noch hinzugefügt, dass die Erfindung nicht auf die beschriebenen Ausführungsbeispiele beschränkt ist, sondern im Rahmen des Patentanspruchs auch in beliebig anderer Weise verwirklicht werden kann.

Caveat:

One reason for selecting this specification is that it demonstrates in a subtle way the major irritation of experienced patent translators—how to proceed in the case of errors. The person skilled in the art of chemistry will observe that the formula given for cetyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is actually the formula for ethyl alcohol. The formula for cetyl alcohol is CH3(CH2)15OH. Working backwards, the translator should never alter the specification. After all, the client may want to overturn the patent on these grounds. Neither should the translator include a translator's note, a footnote or an end note. What the translator can do is to give the client a list of problems, such as the incorrect formula. Other frequent errors include inconsistent naming of parts, incorrect reference numerals, incorrect numbering of the claims, incorrect references to previous claims. If the specification is actually an application, it is also recommended to point out grammatical errors—subject and verb disagreement, errors with singular and plural nouns, incorrect usage of the relative pronoun, use of the demonstrative pronoun with no clear reference, incomplete sentences etc. If a translated abstract is provided, the list may also include a correction of the incorrect translation of key terminology and a reasoned statement for the change.

The device depicted in Figures 1 to 3 has a can-like container 1 with a lid 2, which can be placed on said container. Both the bottom of the container 1 and expediently also the lid 2 are provided with a plurality of passages 3 of arbitrary shape.

The active substance filling 4, comprising a mixture of cetyl alcohol (C2H5OH), borax (Na2B4O7 10 H2O) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), is located in an insert 5, the outer dimensions of which match those of the container 1. Both face sides 6 of said insert are provided with a perforation 16. In addition, the face sides 6 of said insert can be provided with a cover film 7, which can be removed and which is intended for the storage and shipment of said insert. Thus, the filling 4 is then sealed in an air-tight manner.

In order to use the device, both films 7 are peeled off, the insert 5, containing the active substance 4, is put into the container 1, and the lid 2 is put on said container. Thereafter, the device is ready for use.

The active substance 4 can be used in either a powdery or, even better, granular form. A preferred mix ratio comprises 50 parts by weight of sodium bicarbonate, 2 parts by weight of borax and 2 parts by weight of cetyl alcohol.

The embodiment depicted in Figures 4 and 5 comprises two nested container elements 8 and 9 that resemble double jackets and are closed at one end. Both the inner walls 10 and 11 of these container elements 8 and 9 and their outer walls 12 and 13 are provided with perforations 14, which are configured in such a manner that, when both container elements are slid into each other, said perforations coincide in such a manner that by simply rotating these container elements 8 and 9 in opposite directions, the perforations 14 can be opened or closed by choice. The active substance filling 4 is located in the double jacket of the bottom container element 9 and is poured in preferably in the granular form. In order to prevent the filling from escaping through the perforations 14, the inside walls of the bottom double jacket are provided with a gas-permeable cover 15 made of a fine mesh net, gauze or the like.

In this embodiment the active substance mixture can be refilled again from a supply package.

For the sake of completeness it must be added that the invention is not restricted to the described embodiments, but rather can also be realized in any number of different ways within the scope of the patent claim.

Claims

Since the claims are the most important part of the specification, it is crucial that the translation observe the proper grammatical style.

First of all, the claims are derived from the preceding description. For the translator, this means that the claims must read just like the description—i.e. use the same terminology and the reference numerals and symbols as in the description.

Second, the structure is rigidly defined. Each claim is a single sentence.

The first claim, which is also called the principal claim, is the independent claim—that is, it can exist by itself—and contains the essential features of the invention. There may be one or more principal claim(s).

The subsequent claim is the dependent claim—that is, it refers to at least one of the preceding claims and will be flagged by such phrases as:

...nach Anspruch... as claimed in claim... OR

...nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche...

... as claimed in any one of the preceding claims...

Claims are often drafted in two parts: the preamble and the characterizing part.

The preamble is usually the same as the title and, thus, states the subject matter of the invention. Hence, it is also called the "first" or the "prior art" portion of the independent claim.

The characterizing part contains the technical features of the invention—that is, the features for which protection is sought. It is signaled by the connecting expression "dadurch gekennzeichnet" (characterized in that OR characterized by).

1. Gerät zum Beseitigen von Gerüchen in Kühlschränken od. dergl., dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass dasselbe aus einem perforierten, also gasdurchlässigen Behälter (1) besteht, der mit einer pulverigen oder körnigen Wirkstoffmischung (4) aus Cetylalkohol (C2H5OH), Borax (Na2B4O7 10 H2O) und Natriumbikarbonat (NaHCO3) gefüllt ist, derart dass diese Füllung (4) mit der den Behälter (1) umgebenden Luft in Berührung steht.

2. Gerät nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Wirkstoffmischung (4) aus 50 Gewichtsteilen Natriumbikarbonat, 2 Gewichtsteilen Borax und 2 Gewichtsteilen Cetylalkohol besteht.

3. Gerät nach den Ansprüchen 1 und 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Wirkstoffmischung (4) sich in einem Einsatz (5) befindet, dessen Wandungen (6) mit Perforierungen (16) versehen sind, und dass dieser Einsatz (5) auswechselbar in dem mit Luftdurchlässen (3) versehenen, durch einen Deckel (2) verschliessbaren Behälter (1) eingesetzt ist.

4. Gerät nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die perforierten Wandungen (6) bis zum Gebrauch des Geräts mit abziehbaren Deckfolien (7) abgedeckt sind.

5. Gerät nach den Ansprüchen 1 und 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Behälter (1) aus zwei ineinandergeschobenen, doppelhülsenartigen, einseitig geschlossenen Behälterteilen (8 und 9) besteht, deren Innen-und Aussenwände (10/11 und 12/13) in sich gleichartige Perforierungen (14) aufweisen, die derart angeordnet sind, dass sie bei ineinandergeschobenen

Behälterteilen (8 und 9) so miteinander übereinstimmen, dass durch gegenseitiges Verdrehen dieser Teile wahlweise das Öffnen, oder Schliessen der Perforierungen (14) bewirkt wird.

6. Gerät nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Innenwände der Doppelhülse des unteren Behälterteils (9), der die Wirkstoffmischung (4) enthält, mit einer gasdurchlässigen, die Perforierungen (14) bedeckenden Abdeckung (15) versehen sind.

7. Gerät nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Abdeckung (15) aus Gaze oder einem ähnlichen engmaschigen Netz besteht.

 

1. Device for eliminating odors in refrigerators or the like, characterized in that said device comprises a perforated, and thus gas-permeable, container (1), which is filled with a powdery or granular active substance mixture (4), comprising cetyl alcohol (C2H5OH), borax (Na2B4O7 10 H2O) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in such a manner that this filling (4) is in contact with the air surrounding the container (1).

2. Device, as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the active substance mixture (4) comprises 50 parts by weight of sodium bicarbonate, 2 parts by weight of borax and 2 parts by weight of cetyl alcohol.

3. Device as claimed in claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the active substance mixture (4) is located in an insert (5), the walls (6) of which are provided with perforations (16); and that this insert (5) is inserted in an interchangeable manner in the container (1), which is provided with air passages (3) and can be closed with a lid (2).

4. Device, as claimed in claim 3, characterized in that until the device is used, the perforated walls (6) are covered with cover films (7), which can be peeled off.

5. Device, as claimed in claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the container (1) comprises two nested container elements (8 and 9) that resemble double jackets and are closed at one end and whose inner and outer walls (10/11 and 12/13) exhibit within themselves identical perforations (14), which are configured in such a manner that, when the container elements (8 and 9) are slid into each other, said perforations coincide; that by rotating these container elements in opposite directions, the opening or closing of the perforations (14) is achieved by choice.

6. Device, as claimed in claim 5, characterized in that the inside walls of the double jacket of the bottom container element (9), which contains the active substance mixture (4), are provided with a gas-permeable cover (15), which covers the perforations (14).

7. Device, as claimed in claim 6, characterized in that the cover (15) is made of gauze or a similar fine mesh net.

Although in the DE 3443274 the abstract does not appear at the end of the specification, but rather on the cover page, it is reproduced below, in order to underscore the advantages of translating the abstract—that is, the wrap-up—after the specification. Just a cursory glance at the English translation reveals that the content of the abstract repeats not only the same terminology used above in the disclosure, but also the same linguistic structures, expressions and phrases as in the disclosure. When translating a patent, the object is to strike a neutral, serious tone of authority through precision and conciseness, not through energizing prose in sparkling passages. The translator should not even strive for variation. For example, if the linguist translates the word Steuereinrichtung as control unit, then that translation must not change at any point in the patent—in other words, Steuereinrichtung must not read controller or control device or controlling device or control system or any combination thereof anywhere else in the document, because this translation "control unit" constitutes the coin that is to be exchanged for a patent grant. If granted, no one else may thereafter present the same coin—i.e. a Steuereinrichtung having the same features. Some specifications will even include a separate sheet of the reference numerals and symbols (called the "List of Reference Numerals") to ensure consistency.

 

Abstract

In detail, the abstract is a wrap-up that must

a. state the title

b. state the technical field of the invention

c. give a clear and concise summary of the disclosure as translated in the description, the claims and the drawings

d. not exceed 150 words

e. and indicate the drawing, if any.

In Kühlschränken lagernde Güter geben häufig mehr oder weniger Gerüche ab, was dazu führen kann, dass andere, im Kühlschrank befindliche Lebens- oder Genussmittel Fremdgerüche annehmen and damit eine Qualitätsminderung erleiden.

Es stellt sich somit die Aufgabe, ein im Kühlschrank unterzubringendes Gerät zu schaffen, das wenig Raum beansprucht und über längere Zeit hinweg die im Schrank entstehenden Gerüche auf gesundheitlich unbedenkliche Weise beseitigt bzw. an sich bindet.

Diese Aufgabe wird duch einen perforierten, also gasdurchlässigen Behälter gelöst, der mit einer pulverigen oder körnigen Wirkstoffmischung aus Cetylalkohol, Borax und Natriumbikarbonat derart gefüllt ist, dass die genannte Mischung mit der den Behälter umgebenden Luft in Berührung steht.

 

Goods stored in refrigerators often emit more or less strong odors, as a result of which, other foodstuffs in the refrigerator may assume off-odors and thus suffer a reduction in quality.

Therefore, the object of the invention is to provide a device, which is to be accommodated in the refrigerator, requires little space and over a prolonged period of time eliminates or binds in a hygienically safe manner the odors produced in the refrigerator.

This object is achieved by a perforated and thus gas-permeable container, which is filled with a powdery or granular active substance mixture, comprising cetyl alcohol, borax, and sodium bicarbonate in such a manner that said mixture is in contact with the air surrounding the container.

In summary, it should be apparent that the patent specification is a legal document, the form and content of which must satisfy the predefined requirements set forth by the pertinent patent office, for which the specification is intended. Therefore, the translation of such a document requires knowledge of both the technical field and the guidelines on drafting the patent specification.