Page 7 - Translation Journal July 2015
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• jargon
• accents/dialects/sociolects

The fourth sub-variable is affect which can be realized morphosyntactically by lexical selection, grammatical choices and rhetorical
devices (Steiner, 2004).

1.2.3. Mode

This is the last register variable of the context of situation as Steiner views it. Its sub-divisions are: Language role, Channel, and Medium.

As for language role, texts differ from each other in terms of whether they are part of a linguistic activity (constitutive) or part of a non-
linguistic activity (ancillary) (Steiner, 2004). Typical morphosyntactic realizations are: ellipsis, mood, reference. As regards the channel of
discourse which is related to the physical means through which texts are produced whether
‘graphic’ or ‘phonic’ the major options are:

• Sound waves
• Electronic channels
• Paper
• Telephone line, etc.

The Medium which is either spoken or written can be realized morphosyntactically through:

• use of pronouns vs. full words
• exophoric vs. endophoric reference
• types of cohesion
• clause complexity
• Grammatical Metaphor, etc.

1.3. Steiner’s overall view

A decent translation requires that the register remains relatively constant even across the process of translation. In his view, the more
register changes, the more the translated text will not represent a translation in the narrower sense (Steiner 1998).
Steiner argues that while a Register Analysis, is a valuable tool for translation text analysis and evaluation, it does not offer a model of
transfer, because two languages are involved, with
‘typological differences’, and some problems are particular to translation. After a register- analysis, considerations which go beyond the
Context of Situation are indispensable: they have to be based on the language pair a translator is working with and related to the Contexts
of Culture they are set in. However, the final criteria to assess texts remain “functionally motivated” (Steiner 1997).

1.4. Purpose of study

Steiner’s functional model of translation analysis has been less explored as compared to those of House, Baker and others. Especially
in the realm of literature and literary works, there is a dearth of research illuminated by this model. As for English-Persian translations of
literary works, this research is in fact a pioneering work in its own turn. After pinpointing the main components of Steiner’s model, the
present research has sought to analyze the Persian translation of the award winning postmodern apocalyptic novel “The Road” written
by Cormac McCarthey in 2006.

2. Review of Literature

Unfortunately, the register approach has not found much application in translation studies until the 1990s. And this comes only when
translation theorists found out the nature of translation as a textual thing (House, 1981), a cross-cultural communication which is both
socially and culturally necessary and useful (Gregory, 2001). Since then there has been a growing interest in the relevance of the idea of
register, and the model of register analysis, to a translation-oriented analysis and evaluation of texts (Marco, 2001).
Marco (2001) contributed to register analysis in the field of translation quality assessment

by specifically justifying the use of register analysis in literary translation. He mentioned that such a tool provides the necessary link
between a communicative act and the context of situation in which it occurs. For him, register analysis is the most comprehensive
framework proposed for

the characterization of context, and has the benefit of providing a very limited number of variables based on which any specific context
might be defined” (ibid.).
Like Marco, team-workers Hatim and Mason (1990, 1997) also used register analysis as part of their overall account of context in
translation. Despite their claim that there are other contextual factors, i.e. pragmatic and semiotic ones, which transcend the framework
of register, they continue to assume that identifying the register membership of a text is an essential part of discourse processing.
Also noteworthy in the application of register analysis for practical translation studies are

House (1981, 1997) and Baker (1992) who not only employed Halliday’s model of register analysis but also developed reliable criteria by

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