A Study on Modulation Based on Van Leuven-Zwart’s Comparative Model in Two Persian Translations of “Sense and Sensibility” | October 2015 | Translation Journal

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A Study on Modulation Based on Van Leuven-Zwart’s Comparative Model in Two Persian Translations of “Sense and Sensibility”

Abstract

In this study an attempt was to investigate the most frequent types of modulation shifts in  two  Persian  translations  of  an  English  novel.  For  this  purpose,  Van  Leuven Zwart’s comparative model of translation shifts (1989-1990) was utilized as the theoretical framework by which the researcher spotted, categorized and analyzed modulation. The corpus of the study comprised (a) a famous English novel, “Sense and Sensibility” written by Jane Austen; and b) its Persian translations which were done by Karamifar and Rezai. The corpus was studied and analyzed by the researcher to detect modulation shifts. By comparing English and Persian text the researcher came up to the idea that the modulation shift namely, ‘semantic modulation/ specification,  subjective  element’  enjoyed  the  highest  frequency  rate.  By  more detailed comparison the researcher came to the conclusion that in both translations, the frequency of specification strategy is more than generalization. It means that both translators aimed at making the text more comprehensible for the readership. However, by comparing Rezai and Karamifar translations, the researcher came to the conclusion that Rezai used one of the specification shifts; “semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element” which is the second type of modulation shift enjoyed the  highest  frequency  rate,  therefore  Rezai  made  a  text  more  cohesive  than Karamifar.

Keywords: modulation, specification, generalization, comparative model.

* Department of English Translation, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad

University, Tehran, Iran.


1. Introduction

Every text conveys a particular ideology and view point of the original writer through which the author expresses his or her opinion of the world (Heylen, 1993, p. 5).

However in translation, there were cases in which the point of view and meaning are changed. The changes are happened because two languages are not identical. As Nida (1964, p. 156) says: “ since no two languages are identical, either in the meaning given to corresponding symbols or in the ways in which such symbols are arranged in phrases

and sentences, it stands to reason that there can be no absolute correspondence between languages, hence there can be no fully exact translation” (Nida, 1964, p. 241).

The choice of a suitable equivalent will always depend not only on the linguistic system or systems being handled by the translator, but also on the way both the writer of the source text and the producer of the target text, i.e. the translator, choose to manipulate the linguistic system in question” (Baker, 1992, p. 18).

In the process of translation, thought which are affected by source language enter the realm of a target language and source text may undergo changes on various linguistic levels such as semantic and syntax. Such changes, which are in fact departure from formal correspondence, are called “shifts” in translation studies (Catford, 1965).

The term shift seems to originate in Catford’s A Linguistic Theory of Translation (1965) where he devotes a chapter to the subject” (Munday, 2001, p. 60). By the passage of time few other models for systematic study of translation shifts were introduced, and among them , Van Leuven Zwart’s Comparative- Descriptive model (1989, 1990) drew attentions largely as she attempt to systematize comparison and to build in a discourse framework .

As Nida and Taber (1969, p. 99) put, since transfers must take place in someone’s brain, it is inevitable that certain personal problems are likely to distort the process of translation. Therefore, translation shifts are inevitable, and since the transfer takes place in human brain, and narrative mode heavily relies on the constant changing states of minds (James, 1892, p. 2), frequencies of occurrence and implications of translation shifts are expected to rise.

2. Statement of the Problem

According to Catford (1965) a good translation does not translate words but meaning, the target reader will be able to give an equal response to the message translated. The equal response could be achieved by reproducing the message in natural and accurate TL.

Shifts are inseparable part of translation process and are strategies that translators adopt to tackle problems of non-correspondence between language pair. However, beginner translators are unaware of appropriate use of these strategies.

In the most translations, semantic elements of text are not in central attention of translators and they do not translate them correctly which it leads to ill-form translations and consequently, the meaning which is intended by the writer is not convey to the reader. Also in translation, one may successfully transfer a given text but not the mind style, point of view and narrator’s relation with a story, thoughts, and experiences. In other words, thoughts of an author may not be efficiently and properly transferred. For this reason, one must clearly study the shifts that occur in the translation of such works to hedge against any mistranslation.

Because of the differences between two languages, in some occasions translators use shifts to convey the accurate meaning of the source text into the target text. The present study deals with modulation and investigates its frequency. Modulation is a procedure which changes the semantics and point of view of the SL and it is considered as a kind of micro structural shift in translation. Based on Van Leuven Zwart’s model micro structural shifts are shifts which happen within sentences, clauses and phrases.

The present researcher tends to answer the following research question:

What are the most frequent types of modulation shifts based on Van Leuven Zwart’s comparative model in the two Persian translations of “Sense and Sensibility”?

3. Significance of the Study

This study aims at investigating the realization of modulation shift in the process of translating selected novel into Persian. In this way, one can study this translation shift which occurs in microstructural elements of novels which are to be rendered into the target language. By doing so, the researcher find the consequence of the usage of the specific types of modulation shift on the text.

Furthermore, by doing this research we can see the importance of the findings in educational area and teach them in translation classes, also we can give the outcome of our research to publishers and therefore increase the quality of translations in market. And, this research is of prime importance for the improvement of translated literature in Iran.

4. Theoretical Framework of the Study

This part is related to the theoretical framework of the study. So, Van Leuven Zwart’s comparative model and its component will be described in detail.

4.1 Van Leuven Zwart’s Model and its Components

The most detailed attempt to produce and apply a model of shift analysis has been carried out by Kitty van Leuven-Zwart of Amsterdam. Her model takes as its point of departure some of the categories proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet and Levý and applies them to the descriptive analysis of a translation, attempting both to systematize comparison and to build in a discourse framework above the sentence level. The model is ‘intended for the description of integral translations of fictional texts’ (1989:154) and it comprises (1) a comparative model and (2) a descriptive model. Furthermore, Comparative model involves a detailed comparison of ST and TT and a classification of all the microstructural shifts (within sentence, clauses and phrases)” (Munday, 2001, p. 63).

Van Leuven Zwart (1989, pp. 152-4) held that the proposed model was ‘for establishment and description of shifts in integral translation of narrative texts’. In the literature, fiction - which comprises the corpus of the study-is a popular type of narrative text in which events are narrated by either characters or an outsider. Van Leuven Zwart transeme model is generally regarded as ‘the most detailed and comprehensive approach for the purpose of translation analysis. Since her model is the only translation shift model which addresses both micro- and macro-structure of any given literature work, translation scholars have given relatively positive reviews (Munday, 2001, pp. 63-5).

4.1.1 The Transeme

The main component of Van Leuven Zwart’s comparative level is ‘transeme’. Transeme is a comprehensible textual unit- either a phrase or a sentence- by which the ways and extent a given translation differs from its original with regard to syntactic, semantic, stylistic and pragmatic aspects are understood (Leven Zwart, 1989, p. 153, 155)

The origin of transeme can be traced into the fields of linguistics and translation studies, particularly in the works of Noam Chomsky (1968), Nida and Taber (1969) and Dik (1978). A transeme is in fact a modified form of ‘kernel sentence’ born into deep structure of a language. In fact, kernel sentences have been rigorously utilized by translation studies scholars such as Nida (Nida and Taber, 1969, p. 33).

The search to identify the way in which a translation differs from its original and determine the extent of these differences begins with comparison of the source text and the translation on the microstructural level. As sentences are generally too long and words too short to be easily compared, selected passages are divided into transemes (Leuven Zwart, 1989, p. 155).

Van Leuven Zwart proposes two types of transemes: the ‘state of affairs transeme’ and the ‘satellite transeme’. The state of affairs transeme consists of a predicate – a lexical verb or copula- and its argument. The satellite transeme lacks a predicate and might be regarded as an adverbial specification or amplification of the state of affairs transeme (p. 156). The boundaries of a state of affairs transeme are indicated by slashes [/.../] and those of a satellite transeme by parentheses [(…)].

ST: / Linda frowned; / /she sat up quickly (in her steamer chair) / /and

clasped her ankles. /

مه هب ار شیاهونازو/ /تسشن )شا یبوچ یلدنص رب( و تساخرب اروف/ /؛درک مخا ادنیل/ :TT

/ .دنابسچ

4.1.2 The Architranseme (ATR)

The basic principle of Leuven Zwart’s comparative model is the concept of relationship as defined by structural semanticist, such as Lyons (1977), according to him, two entities are related when they have both similar and dissimilar aspects, “when we compare and contrast two objects with respect to their possession or lack of one or more properties, we do so generally on the basis of their similarity in other respects…. Oppositions are drawn along some dimension of similarity” (p. 286).

In this view, the existence of a similarity is considered a precondition for the existence of dissimilarity; therefore, before one can discover the differences one must be aware of the features in common (Van Leuven Zwart, 1989, p. 156).

The comparison between a source text transeme and a target text transeme involves three steps. The first is the establishment of the similarities, i.e. of the common denominator. This common denominator is called the architranseme or ART.

In the ATR, common features are expressed by content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) or by paraphrases. Function words, such as prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns, do not appear in the ATR (p. 157).

/ .دوب دهاوخ بوخ اوه/ :TT

ATR: weather+ to be fine

4.1.3 Modulation

The second step to be undertaken is the comparison of each separate transeme with the ATR, in order to establish the relationship between the respective transeme and the corresponding ATR. As Leuven Zwart (p. 158) and Munday (2001, p. 64) say, there are two possibilities: either the transeme or the ATR correspond, or differ. If there is no difference between a transeme and the ATR, this means that their relationship is based exclusively on aspect of conjunction. This relationship is called synonymic. The absence of a synonymic relationship indicates a shift in translation.

The two initial steps, the establishment of an ATR and the separate comparison of each transeme with ATR, are preliminary to the third and last step that is the establishment of the relationship between the two transemes. One of these relationships is called modulation.

Van Leuven-Zwart (1989, as cited in Munday, 2001) defined modulation as “One of the transemes tallies with the Architranseme, but the other differs either semantically or stylistically.”

According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1995) modulation ‘changes the semantics and point of view of the SL’ (Munday, 2001, p. 57).

4.1.3.1 Semantic Modulation

In the case of modulation which falls into semantic and stylistic categories, one transeme displays an aspect of disjunction (AD) with respect to the ATR, whereas the other manifests conjunction. If the aspect of disjunction occurs in the target text transeme (TTT), the shift is called modulation/specification; if the aspect of disjunction manifests itself in the source text transeme (STT), then the shift is called modulation / generalization (Van Leuven Zwart, 1989, p. 159).

Specification:

ST: /He was executed yesterday. /

/ .دش هتخیوآ راد هب زورید  وا/ :TT

ATR: a man + put to death + yesterday             STT= 0    TTT= راد هب

Generalization:

ST: / And though he admires Elinor’s drawings (very much). /

/ .دنک یم نیسحت )یلیخ( ار رونلا هچرگا و / :TT

ATR: admire + Elinor + very much               STT: drawings    TTT: 0

She says semantic modulation shifts can be further categorized as intensive, aspectual, concrete and subjective elements (p. 160).

1) Intensive:

ST: /He shouted with anger. /

/ .دز دایرف شاخرپ اب/ :TT

ATR: to shout with anger      STT: anger    TTT: very angrily àشاخرپ


ST: /why was he to ruin himself. /

/ .دومن یم لزلزتم ار دوخ دوو شد ناج یاقآ دیاب ارچ/ :TT

ATR: why + Mr. John Dashwood + ruin

STT: he      TTT: دوو شد ناج یاقآ

3) Concrete:

ST: /But Clongowes was far away. /

/ .دوب رود یلیخ اجنآ زا زومگلاک اما/ :TT

ATR: But + Clongowes + past tense + to be + much + far

STT: 0    TTT: اجنآزا

4) Subjective:

ST: /That is the language of the Holy Ghost. /

/ .تسا سدقلا حور  ملاک و ظفل نیا/ :TT

ATR: It + to be + language + of + Holy Ghost

STT: language   TTT: words = ملاک

4.1.3.2 Stylistic Modulation

In stylistic modulation/specification a stylistic aspect of disjunction manifests itself in the TTT, while the STT lacks such an aspect. Stylistic modulation/generalization occurs when a stylistic aspect of disjunction appears in the STT, while aspect of conjunction appears only in the TTT (pp. 161-162).

Stylistic value is also an important criterion to consider in categorizing stylistic modulation. This term covers Lyons’ notion of expressive and social meaning. In his definition of ‘expressive meaning’ Lyons quotes Brown (1958): “that aspect of meaning which covaries with characteristics of the speaker” (Lyons, 1977, p. 51). He defined ‘social meaning’ as “that aspect which serves to establish and maintain social relations.”

Therefore, Leuven Zwart (1989, p.163) distinguishes two categories of stylistic modulation: a) stylistic modulation with respect to a social aspect of disjunction and b) stylistic modulation with respect to an expressive aspect of disjunction. According to her, social aspect of disjunction consists of four sub-categories:

1. The aspect of disjunction is a register element, i.e. the element provides information on the social relationship which exists between the participants in the language situation: formal/informal, official/colloquial, polite/impolite, distant/familiar; ex:

ST: /But Mr. Harford never got into a wax. /

/ .دش یمن ینابصع تقو چیه دروفاه یاقآ اما/ :TT

STT: informal language     TTT: 0

2. The aspect of disjunction is a time element, i.e. the element provides information about the temporal dimension in which the utterance occurs: a) archaisms 2) neologisms;


3. The aspect of disjunction is a text-specific element, i.e. the element provides information about the text type: letters, jokes, fairy tales, and calque; ex:

ST: /It was his club’s boast. /

/ .دوب نیا شپولک راختفا/ :TT

STT: club     TTT: پولک

4. The aspect of disjunction is a cultural element, i.e. the element provides information about the country, the culture and the social characteristics of the source text or the translation: a) exotization b) naturalization. ex:

Naturalizing:

ST: /It’s a Christmas present/

/ هیدیع هی نیا/ :TT

STT: Christmas        TTT: 0

Expressive aspect of disjunction consists of two sub-categories:

1. The aspect of disjunction is a syntagmatic element. These elements are based on the phenomenon of repetition, and underlie such figures of speech as alliteration, rhyme, assonance, anaphora and parallelism; ex.


ST: /It is too bad surely. /

/ .تسا دب یلیخ هک یتسار یتسار/ :TT

ATR: similar transemes    STT: 0    TTT: parallelism (repetition) àیتسار

2. The aspect of disjunction is a paradigmatic element. These elements are results of the selection of an item which is not a member of normal range of choices available at its place in the linguistic chain and underlie figures of speech such as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, paradox, hyperbole and litotes (p. 163-164).

5. Methodology

The present research is a case study; the case of this study is limited to one English text and its translations in Persian language. The research is corpus-based and descriptive since it aims at studying two translations of a major literary work, i.e. Sense and Sensibility”. It compares a source text with its translated counterparts in the target language.

To investigate the frequency of modulation shifts, a novel together with its Persian translations have been selected. From each of those Persian books, one hundred pages are selected randomly and considered as a Persian corpus. The novel was written by famous author, i.e. Jane Austen. Furthermore, the selected translation samples have all been rendered by well-known and proficient translators, i.e. Rezai and Karamifar.

Author

Title of the novel

Date  of publication

Chapter(s)

under study

Jane

Austen

Sense and

Sensibility

1811

1-15

Chapter(s)

under study

Name and date of

publication and number of the pages

Novel

Translator

15 ات 1 لصف

ص100

.1374 .رپ تاراشتنا

ص412

هتخابلد

سابع

رف یمرک

15 ات 1 لصف

ص 100

.1387 .ین رشن تاراشتنا

ص410

و لقع

ساسحا

اضر

ییاضر


6. Data Analysis

In the process of data collection and analysis the researcher followed some stages. At the first stage, hundred pages from English novel were randomly selected. Then, the English text together with its Persian counterparts were compared and different types of modulation shift on the microstructural level were spotted and recorded based on Leuven Zwart’s comparative model. The researcher divided each English and Persian sentence into transeme and also defined Architranseme

(ATR) for each sentence. Next, modulation shifts classified into a number of categories.


Sample of Collected Data from Translation by Karamifar

ST

TT

ATR

Types of

modulation shift

/The family of

Dashwood had long been settled (in Sussex.) /

زا دوو شد هداوناخ/ رود رایسب نایلاس ی هیحان رد( نکاس )سکساس

/ندوبهدش

family of

Dashwood

+ be settled+ long + in Sussex

1)

STT=0

TTT= نایلاس

Semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element

2)

STT= long

TTT= to be very long)رایسب  (

Semantic modulation/ specification, intensive

/Their estate was

large, / /and their residence was at Norland Park, (in the center of their property.)/

و / /،عیسو اهنآ  کلا ما/

دنلرون رد ناشهاگتماقا

کلا ما  زکرم رد( کراپ

/).دوب هدش عقاو اهنآ

ATR 1)

Their state +

be + large

ATR 2)

Their

residence + be

+ at Norland Park + in the center of their property

STT=0

TTT= parallelism (repetition) Stylistic modulation/ specification, syntagmatic element

(parallelism added)

کلاما

/In the society of his

nephew and niece,

and their children, the old gentleman’s days were comfortably spent. /

و هدازردارب راوج رد/ نادنزرفو ،هدازرهاوخ درم نآ راگزور ،اهنآ شمارآ لامک رد مرتحم

/.تشگیرپس

In the Society

+ nephew + niece + children + gentleman’s day + be + comfortably + spent

1) The old

gentleman à

مرتحم درم

STT= old

TTT= 0

Semantic modulation/ generalization, subjective element

2) STT= Days

TTT= راگزور Semantic modulation/ generalization, aspectual


Sample of Collected Data from Translation by Rezai

ST

TT

ATR

Types of

modulation shifts

/their

residence was at Norland Park. /

رد اهنآ ی هناخ/

/.دوبکراپ دنلرون

Their

residence + be + at Norland Park

STT: residence

TTT: هناخ

Semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element

/and (who for

many years of his life,) had a constant companion and housekeeper in his sister. /

یاه لاس رد و/ یمدمه رمع زارد زج تشادن

هب هک شرهاوخ زینهناخروما یم یگدیسر

/.درک

For many

years of life

+ had + his sister + companion + housekeepin g

STT=0

TTT= تشادن یمدمه

Semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element

/ (for to supply

her loss,) he invited and received into his house the family of his nephew Mr. Henry Dashwood, (the legal

inheritor of the Norland estate, and the person to whom he intended to bequeath it.) /

نآ یارب(  د رمریپ / یلاخ یاج هک

)دنکرپ ار رهاوخ هداوناخ زا

،شا هدازرهاوخ

یرنه  یاقآ توعد،دووشد رد دنیایبهک درک یگدنزواهناخ

یرن ه یاقآ/ننک ثراودووشدکلمینوناق بوسحمدنلرون

د رمر یپ      و ،دش یم کلم تشاد دصق ثرا هب وا یارب ار

/.دراذگب

supply +

sister’s loss

+ invited + received + house + nephew + Henry Dashwood + legal interior

+ Norland estate + the person + he

+ intended +

bequeath

1)

STT: her – he

TTT: رهاوخ - درمریپ

Semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element

2)

STT: 0

TTT:  یاقآ-درمریپ دووشد یرنه

Stylistic modulation/ specification, syntagmatic element,(adding parallelism)à

یرنهیاقآ-درمریپ دووشد


After collecting the data, the first task was to organize and present results in a clear way. The researcher went through the corpus line by line and tried to find that in each novel which type of modulation shifts occurred more than the others. The following table shows the frequencies of modulation shifts in the Persian novels which are translated by two translators.


Comparison of frequencies between two translations

Type of modulation shifts

Rezai

Karamifar

Frequency

Frequency

Semantic modulation/ specification/

aspectual element

30

18

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

aspectual element

17

17

Semantic modulation/ specification/

subjective element

20

38

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

subjective element

15

28

Semantic modulation/ specification/

intensive element

13

10

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

intensive element

12

15

Semantic modulation/ specification/

concrete element

-

2

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

concrete element

-

6

Stylistic modulation/ specification /register

element

-

4

Stylistic modulation/ generalization /

register element

-

3

Stylistic modulation/ specification /

syntagmatic element/ parallelism

19

25

Stylistic modulation/ generalization /

syntagmatic element/ parallelism

10

8

total

136

174


After comparing Persian translations of the mentioned English novel, the researcher spotted 310 modulation shifts in both Persian translations.

It should be mentioned that the number of shifts in two Persian translations was different. The researcher spotted 174 modulation shifts in Persian translation of Karamifar and 136 modulation shifts in Persian translation of Rezai. So Karamifar used more modulation shifts in his translation than Rezai.

By comparing English/Persian texts and analyzing frequency tables, it was found that among twenty types of modulation shifts, “semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element” which is used by Karamifar, with 23% of occurrence, enjoyed the highest frequency rate between two Persian translations. However, by comparing Rezai and Karamifar translations and according to the last table, Rezai used “semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element” with 22% of

occurrence, therefore it is the second type of modulation shift enjoyed the highest frequency rate.

By more detailed comparison in both translations the researcher came to the conclusion that the frequency of specification strategy is more than generalization. Furthermore, by comparing percentage of

specification and generalization strategies which were used by translators; the researcher found that Rezai used specification strategy with frequency of 61% and Karamifar used this with frequency of 57%.

7. Conclusions

As it was mentioned in previous chapter, “semantic modulation/

specification, subjective element” is used by Karamifar with high frequency. So


the researcher came to the conclusion that Karamifar translation is subjective. For example:

Mrs. Dashwood had been  informed by her husband.

.دوب هدینششرهوشزا دووشد مناخ هک روط نآ

Furthermore, Karamifar used another

Abstract

In this study an attempt was to investigate the most frequent types of modulation shifts in  two  Persian  translations  of  an  English  novel.  For  this  purpose,  Van  Leuven Zwart’s comparative model of translation shifts (1989-1990) was utilized as the theoretical framework by which the researcher spotted, categorized and analyzed modulation. The corpus of the study comprised (a) a famous English novel, “Sense and Sensibility” written by Jane Austen; and b) its Persian translations which were done by Karamifar and Rezai. The corpus was studied and analyzed by the researcher to detect modulation shifts. By comparing English and Persian text the researcher came up to the idea that the modulation shift namely, ‘semantic modulation/ specification,  subjective  element’  enjoyed  the  highest  frequency  rate.  By  more detailed comparison the researcher came to the conclusion that in both translations, the frequency of specification strategy is more than generalization. It means that both translators aimed at making the text more comprehensible for the readership. However, by comparing Rezai and Karamifar translations, the researcher came to the conclusion that Rezai used one of the specification shifts; “semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element” which is the second type of modulation shift enjoyed the  highest  frequency  rate,  therefore  Rezai  made  a  text  more  cohesive  than Karamifar.

Keywords: modulation, specification, generalization, comparative model.

* Department of English Translation, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad

University, Tehran, Iran.


1. Introduction

Every text conveys a particular ideology and view point of the original writer through which the author expresses his or her opinion of the world (Heylen, 1993, p. 5).

However in translation, there were cases in which the point of view and meaning are changed. The changes are happened because two languages are not identical. As Nida (1964, p. 156) says: “ since no two languages are identical, either in the meaning given to corresponding symbols or in the ways in which such symbols are arranged in phrases

and sentences, it stands to reason that there can be no absolute correspondence between languages, hence there can be no fully exact translation” (Nida, 1964, p. 241).

The choice of a suitable equivalent will always depend not only on the linguistic system or systems being handled by the translator, but also on the way both the writer of the source text and the producer of the target text, i.e. the translator, choose to manipulate the linguistic system in question” (Baker, 1992, p. 18).

In the process of translation, thought which are affected by source language enter the realm of a target language and source text may

undergo changes on various linguistic levels such as semantic and syntax. Such changes, which are in fact departure from formal correspondence, are called “shifts” in translation studies (Catford, 1965).

The term shift seems to originate in Catford’s A Linguistic Theory of Translation (1965) where he devotes a chapter to the subject” (Munday, 2001, p. 60). By the passage of time few other models for systematic study of translation shifts were introduced, and among them , Van Leuven Zwart’s Comparative- Descriptive model (1989, 1990) drew


attentions largely as she attempt to systematize comparison and to build in a discourse framework .

As Nida and Taber (1969, p. 99) put, since transfers must take place in someone’s brain, it is inevitable that certain personal problems are likely to distort the process of translation. Therefore, translation shifts are inevitable, and since the transfer takes place in human brain, and narrative mode heavily relies on the constant changing states of minds (James, 1892, p. 2), frequencies of occurrence and implications of translation shifts are expected to rise.

2. Statement of the Problem

According to Catford (1965) a good translation does not translate words but meaning, the target reader will be able to give an equal response to the message translated. The equal response could be achieved by reproducing the message in natural and accurate TL.

Shifts are inseparable part of translation process and are strategies that translators adopt to tackle problems of non-correspondence between language pair. However, beginner translators are unaware of appropriate use of these strategies.

In the most translations, semantic elements of text are not in central attention of translators and they do not translate them correctly which it leads to ill-form translations and consequently, the meaning which is intended by the writer is not convey to the reader. Also in translation, one may successfully transfer a given text but not the mind style, point of

view and narrator’s relation with a story, thoughts, and experiences. In other words, thoughts of an author may not be efficiently and properly transferred. For this reason, one must clearly study the shifts that occur in the translation of such works to hedge against any mistranslation.


Because of the differences between two languages, in some occasions translators use shifts to convey the accurate meaning of the source text into the target text. The present study deals with modulation and investigates its frequency. Modulation is a procedure which changes the semantics and point of view of the SL and it is considered as a kind of micro structural shift in translation. Based on Van Leuven Zwart’s model micro structural shifts are shifts which happen within sentences, clauses and phrases.

The present researcher tends to answer the following research question:

What are the most frequent types of modulation shifts based on

Van Leuven Zwart’s comparative model in the two Persian translations of

Sense and Sensibility”?

3. Significance of the Study

This study aims at investigating the realization of modulation shift in the process of translating selected novel into Persian. In this way, one can study this translation shift which occurs in microstructural elements of novels which are to be rendered into the target language. By doing so, the researcher find the consequence of the usage of the specific types of modulation shift on the text.

Furthermore, by doing this research we can see the importance of the findings in educational area and teach them in translation classes, also we can give the outcome of our research to publishers and therefore increase the quality of translations in market. And, this research is of prime importance for the improvement of translated literature in Iran.


4. Theoretical Framework of the Study

This part is related to the theoretical framework of the study. So, Van Leuven Zwart’s comparative model and its component will be described in detail.

4.1 Van Leuven Zwart’s Model and its Components

The most detailed attempt to produce and apply a model of shift analysis has been carried out by Kitty van Leuven-Zwart of Amsterdam. Her model takes as its point of departure some of the categories proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet and Levý and applies them to the descriptive analysis of a translation, attempting both to systematize comparison and to build in a discourse framework above the sentence level. The model is

intended for the description of integral translations of fictional texts’ (1989:154) and it comprises (1) a comparative model and (2) a descriptive model. Furthermore, Comparative model involves a detailed comparison of ST and TT and a classification of all the microstructural shifts (within sentence, clauses and phrases)” (Munday, 2001, p. 63).

Van Leuven Zwart (1989, pp. 152-4) held that the proposed model was ‘for establishment and description of shifts in integral translation of narrative texts’. In the literature, fiction - which comprises the corpus of the study-is a popular type of narrative text in which events are narrated by either characters or an outsider. Van Leuven Zwart transeme model is generally regarded as ‘the most detailed and comprehensive approach for the purpose of translation analysis. Since her model is the only translation shift model which addresses both micro- and macro-structure of any

given literature work, translation scholars have given relatively positive reviews (Munday, 2001, pp. 63-5).


4.1.1 The Transeme

The main component of Van Leuven Zwart’s comparative level is

transeme’. Transeme is a comprehensible textual unit- either a phrase or a sentence- by which the ways and extent a given translation differs from its original with regard to syntactic, semantic, stylistic and pragmatic aspects are understood (Leven Zwart, 1989, p. 153, 155)

The origin of transeme can be traced into the fields of linguistics and translation studies, particularly in the works of Noam Chomsky (1968), Nida and Taber (1969) and Dik (1978). A transeme is in fact a modified form of ‘kernel sentence’ born into deep structure of a language. In fact, kernel sentences have been rigorously utilized by translation studies scholars such as Nida (Nida and Taber, 1969, p. 33).

The search to identify the way in which a translation differs from its original and determine the extent of these differences begins with comparison of the source text and the translation on the microstructural level. As sentences are generally too long and words too short to be easily compared, selected passages are divided into transemes (Leuven Zwart,

1989, p. 155).

Van Leuven Zwart proposes two types of transemes: the ‘state of affairs transeme’ and the ‘satellite transeme’. The state of affairs transeme consists of a predicate – a lexical verb or copula- and its argument. The satellite transeme lacks a predicate and might be regarded as an adverbial specification or amplification of the state of affairs transeme (p. 156). The boundaries of a state of affairs transeme are

indicated by slashes [/.../] and those of a satellite transeme by parentheses

[(…)].


ST: / Linda frowned; / /she sat up quickly (in her steamer chair) / /and

clasped her ankles. /

مه هب ار شیاهونازو/ /تسشن )شا یبوچ یلدنص رب( و تساخرب اروف/ /؛درک مخا ادنیل/ :TT

/ .دنابسچ

4.1.2 The Architranseme (ATR)

The basic principle of Leuven Zwart’s comparative model is the concept of relationship as defined by structural semanticist, such as Lyons (1977), according to him, two entities are related when they have both similar and dissimilar aspects, “when we compare and contrast two objects with respect to their possession or lack of one or more properties, we do so generally on the basis of their similarity in other respects…. Oppositions are drawn along some dimension of similarity” (p. 286).

In this view, the existence of a similarity is considered a precondition for the existence of dissimilarity; therefore, before one can discover the differences one must be aware of the features in common (Van Leuven Zwart, 1989, p. 156).

The comparison between a source text transeme and a target text transeme involves three steps. The first is the establishment of the similarities, i.e. of the common denominator. This common denominator is called the architranseme or ART.

In the ATR, common features are expressed by content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) or by paraphrases. Function words, such as prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns, do not appear in the ATR (p. 157).


/ .دوب دهاوخ بوخ اوه/ :TT

ATR: weather+ to be fine

4.1.3 Modulation

The second step to be undertaken is the comparison of each separate transeme with the ATR, in order to establish the relationship between the respective transeme and the corresponding ATR. As Leuven Zwart (p. 158) and Munday (2001, p. 64) say, there are two possibilities: either the transeme or the ATR correspond, or differ. If there is no difference between a transeme and the ATR, this means that their relationship is based exclusively on aspect of conjunction. This relationship is called synonymic. The absence of a synonymic relationship indicates a shift in translation.

The two initial steps, the establishment of an ATR and the separate comparison of each transeme with ATR, are preliminary to the third and last step that is the establishment of the relationship between the two transemes. One of these relationships is called modulation.

Van Leuven-Zwart (1989, as cited in Munday, 2001) defined modulation as “One of the transemes tallies with the Architranseme, but the other differs either semantically or stylistically.”

According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1995) modulation ‘changes the semantics and point of view of the SL’ (Munday, 2001, p. 57).

4.1.3.1 Semantic Modulation

In the case of modulation which falls into semantic and stylistic categories, one transeme displays an aspect of disjunction (AD) with


respect to the ATR, whereas the other manifests conjunction. If the aspect of disjunction occurs in the target text transeme (TTT), the shift is called modulation/specification; if the aspect of disjunction manifests itself in

the source text transeme (STT), then the shift is called modulation/

generalization (Van Leuven Zwart, 1989, p. 159).

Specification:

ST: /He was executed yesterday. /

/ .دش هتخیوآ راد هب زورید  وا/ :TT

ATR: a man + put to death + yesterday             STT= 0    TTT= راد هب

Generalization:

ST: / And though he admires Elinor’s drawings (very much). /

/ .دنک یم نیسحت )یلیخ( ار رونلا هچرگا و / :TT

ATR: admire + Elinor + very much               STT: drawings    TTT: 0

She says semantic modulation shifts can be further categorized as intensive, aspectual, concrete and subjective elements (p. 160).

1) Intensive:

ST: /He shouted with anger. /

/ .دز دایرف شاخرپ اب/ :TT

ATR: to shout with anger      STT: anger    TTT: very angrily àشاخرپ


ST: /why was he to ruin himself. /

/ .دومن یم لزلزتم ار دوخ دوو شد ناج یاقآ دیاب ارچ/ :TT

ATR: why + Mr. John Dashwood + ruin

STT: he      TTT: دوو شد ناج یاقآ

3) Concrete:

ST: /But Clongowes was far away. /

/ .دوب رود یلیخ اجنآ زا زومگلاک اما/ :TT

ATR: But + Clongowes + past tense + to be + much + far

STT: 0    TTT: اجنآزا

4) Subjective:

ST: /That is the language of the Holy Ghost. /

/ .تسا سدقلا حور  ملاک و ظفل نیا/ :TT

ATR: It + to be + language + of + Holy Ghost

STT: language   TTT: words = ملاک

4.1.3.2 Stylistic Modulation

In stylistic modulation/specification a stylistic aspect of disjunction manifests itself in the TTT, while the STT lacks such an aspect. Stylistic modulation/generalization occurs when a stylistic aspect of disjunction


appears in the STT, while aspect of conjunction appears only in the TTT (pp. 161-162).

Stylistic value is also an important criterion to consider in categorizing stylistic modulation. This term covers Lyons’ notion of expressive and social meaning. In his definition of ‘expressive meaning’ Lyons quotes Brown (1958): “that aspect of meaning which covaries with characteristics of the speaker” (Lyons, 1977, p. 51). He defined ‘social meaning’ as “that aspect which serves to establish and maintain social relations.”

Therefore, Leuven Zwart (1989, p.163) distinguishes two

categories of stylistic modulation: a) stylistic modulation with respect to a social aspect of disjunction and b) stylistic modulation with respect to an expressive aspect of disjunction. According to her, social aspect of disjunction consists of four sub-categories:

1. The aspect of disjunction is a register element, i.e. the element provides information on the social relationship which exists between the participants in the language situation: formal/informal, official/colloquial, polite/impolite, distant/familiar; ex:

ST: /But Mr. Harford never got into a wax. /

/ .دش یمن ینابصع تقو چیه دروفاه یاقآ اما/ :TT

STT: informal language     TTT: 0

2. The aspect of disjunction is a time element, i.e. the element provides information about the temporal dimension in which the utterance occurs: a) archaisms 2) neologisms;


3. The aspect of disjunction is a text-specific element, i.e. the element provides information about the text type: letters, jokes, fairy tales, and calque; ex:

ST: /It was his club’s boast. /

/ .دوب نیا شپولک راختفا/ :TT

STT: club     TTT: پولک

4. The aspect of disjunction is a cultural element, i.e. the element provides information about the country, the culture and the social characteristics of the source text or the translation: a) exotization b) naturalization. ex:

Naturalizing:

ST: /It’s a Christmas present/

/ هیدیع هی نیا/ :TT

STT: Christmas        TTT: 0

Expressive aspect of disjunction consists of two sub-categories:

1. The aspect of disjunction is a syntagmatic element. These elements are based on the phenomenon of repetition, and underlie such figures of speech as alliteration, rhyme, assonance, anaphora and parallelism; ex.


ST: /It is too bad surely. /

/ .تسا دب یلیخ هک یتسار یتسار/ :TT

ATR: similar transemes    STT: 0    TTT: parallelism (repetition) àیتسار

2. The aspect of disjunction is a paradigmatic element. These elements are results of the selection of an item which is not a member of normal range of choices available at its place in the linguistic chain and underlie figures of speech such as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, paradox, hyperbole and litotes (p. 163-164).

5. Methodology

The present research is a case study; the case of this study is limited to one English text and its translations in Persian language. The research is corpus-based and descriptive since it aims at studying two translations of a major literary work, i.e. Sense and Sensibility”. It compares a source text with its translated counterparts in the target language.

To investigate the frequency of modulation shifts, a novel together with its Persian translations have been selected. From each of those Persian books, one hundred pages are selected randomly and considered as a Persian corpus. The novel was written by famous author, i.e. Jane Austen. Furthermore, the selected translation samples have all been rendered by well-known and proficient translators, i.e. Rezai and Karamifar.


Author

Title of the novel

Date  of publication

Chapter(s)

under study

Jane

Austen

Sense and

Sensibility

1811

1-15

           

Chapter(s)

under study

Name and date of

publication and number of the pages

Novel

Translator

15 ات 1 لصف

ص100

.1374 .رپ تاراشتنا

ص412

هتخابلد

سابع

رف یمرک

15 ات 1 لصف

ص 100

.1387 .ین رشن تاراشتنا

ص410

و لقع

ساسحا

اضر

ییاضر

6. Data Analysis

In the process of data collection and analysis the researcher followed some stages. At the first stage, hundred pages from English novel were randomly selected. Then, the English text together with its Persian counterparts were compared and different types of modulation shift on the microstructural level were spotted and recorded based on Leuven Zwart’s comparative model. The researcher divided each English and Persian sentence into transeme and also defined Architranseme

(ATR) for each sentence. Next, modulation shifts classified into a number of categories.


Sample of Collected Data from Translation by Karamifar

ST

TT

ATR

Types of

modulation shift

/The family of

Dashwood had long been settled (in Sussex.) /

زا دوو شد هداوناخ/ رود رایسب نایلاس ی هیحان رد( نکاس )سکساس

/ندوبهدش

family of

Dashwood

+ be settled+ long + in Sussex

1)

STT=0

TTT= نایلاس

Semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element

2)

STT= long

TTT= to be very long)رایسب  (

Semantic modulation/ specification, intensive

/Their estate was

large, / /and their residence was at Norland Park, (in the center of their property.)/

و / /،عیسو اهنآ  کلا ما/

دنلرون رد ناشهاگتماقا

کلا ما  زکرم رد( کراپ

/).دوب هدش عقاو اهنآ

ATR 1)

Their state +

be + large

ATR 2)

Their

residence + be

+ at Norland Park + in the center of their property

STT=0

TTT= parallelism (repetition) Stylistic modulation/ specification, syntagmatic element

(parallelism added)

کلاما

/In the society of his

nephew and niece,

and their children, the old gentleman’s days were comfortably spent. /

و هدازردارب راوج رد/ نادنزرفو ،هدازرهاوخ درم نآ راگزور ،اهنآ شمارآ لامک رد مرتحم

/.تشگیرپس

In the Society

+ nephew + niece + children + gentleman’s day + be + comfortably + spent

1) The old

gentleman à

مرتحم درم

STT= old

TTT= 0

Semantic modulation/ generalization, subjective element

2) STT= Days

TTT= راگزور Semantic modulation/ generalization, aspectual


Sample of Collected Data from Translation by Rezai

ST

TT

ATR

Types of

modulation shifts

/their

residence was at Norland Park. /

رد اهنآ ی هناخ/

/.دوبکراپ دنلرون

Their

residence + be + at Norland Park

STT: residence

TTT: هناخ

Semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element

/and (who for

many years of his life,) had a constant companion and housekeeper in his sister. /

یاه لاس رد و/ یمدمه رمع زارد زج تشادن

هب هک شرهاوخ زینهناخروما یم یگدیسر

/.درک

For many

years of life

+ had + his sister + companion + housekeepin g

STT=0

TTT= تشادن یمدمه

Semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element

/ (for to supply

her loss,) he invited and received into his house the family of his nephew Mr. Henry Dashwood, (the legal

inheritor of the Norland estate, and the person to whom he intended to bequeath it.) /

نآ یارب(  د رمریپ / یلاخ یاج هک

)دنکرپ ار رهاوخ هداوناخ زا

،شا هدازرهاوخ

یرنه  یاقآ توعد،دووشد رد دنیایبهک درک یگدنزواهناخ

یرن ه یاقآ/ننک ثراودووشدکلمینوناق بوسحمدنلرون

د رمر یپ      و ،دش یم کلم تشاد دصق ثرا هب وا یارب ار

/.دراذگب

supply +

sister’s loss

+ invited + received + house + nephew + Henry Dashwood + legal interior

+ Norland estate + the person + he

+ intended +

bequeath

1)

STT: her – he

TTT: رهاوخ - درمریپ

Semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element

2)

STT: 0

TTT:  یاقآ-درمریپ دووشد یرنه

Stylistic modulation/ specification, syntagmatic element,(adding parallelism)à

یرنهیاقآ-درمریپ دووشد


After collecting the data, the first task was to organize and present results in a clear way. The researcher went through the corpus line by line and tried to find that in each novel which type of modulation shifts occurred more than the others. The following table shows the frequencies of modulation shifts in the Persian novels which are translated by two translators.


Comparison of frequencies between two translations

Type of modulation shifts

Rezai

Karamifar

Frequency

Frequency

Semantic modulation/ specification/

aspectual element

30

18

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

aspectual element

17

17

Semantic modulation/ specification/

subjective element

20

38

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

subjective element

15

28

Semantic modulation/ specification/

intensive element

13

10

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

intensive element

12

15

Semantic modulation/ specification/

concrete element

-

2

Semantic modulation/ generalization/

concrete element

-

6

Stylistic modulation/ specification /register

element

-

4

Stylistic modulation/ generalization /

register element

-

3

Stylistic modulation/ specification /

syntagmatic element/ parallelism

19

25

Stylistic modulation/ generalization /

syntagmatic element/ parallelism

10

8

total

136

174


After comparing Persian translations of the mentioned English novel, the researcher spotted 310 modulation shifts in both Persian translations.

It should be mentioned that the number of shifts in two Persian translations was different. The researcher spotted 174 modulation shifts in Persian translation of Karamifar and 136 modulation shifts in Persian translation of Rezai. So Karamifar used more modulation shifts in his translation than Rezai.

By comparing English/Persian texts and analyzing frequency tables, it was found that among twenty types of modulation shifts, “semantic modulation/ specification, subjective element” which is used by Karamifar, with 23% of occurrence, enjoyed the highest frequency rate between two Persian translations. However, by comparing Rezai and Karamifar translations and according to the last table, Rezai used “semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element” with 22% of

occurrence, therefore it is the second type of modulation shift enjoyed the highest frequency rate.

By more detailed comparison in both translations the researcher came to the conclusion that the frequency of specification strategy is more than generalization. Furthermore, by comparing percentage of

specification and generalization strategies which were used by translators; the researcher found that Rezai used specification strategy with frequency of 61% and Karamifar used this with frequency of 57%.

7. Conclusions

As it was mentioned in previous chapter, “semantic modulation/

specification, subjective element” is used by Karamifar with high frequency. So


the researcher came to the conclusion that Karamifar translation is subjective. For example:

Mrs. Dashwood had been  informed by her husband.

.دوب هدینششرهوشزا دووشد مناخ هک روط نآ

Furthermore, Karamifar used another type of modulation shift in his translation; “stylistic modulation/ specification, parallelism (repetition)” and by doing so, he makes the text redundant and boring. For example:

- To him therefore the succession to the Norland estate was not so really important as to his sisters.

 تیمها زا وا یارب تشاد  تیمها  شنارهاوخ یارب هک هزادنا نادب دنلرون کلاما زا یدنم هرهب ور نیا زا

.دوبنرادروخربینادنچیعقاو

By more detailed comparison in both translations the researcher came to the conclusion that because the frequency of specification strategy is more than generalization, both translators aimed at making the text more comprehensible for the readership. However, by comparing Rezai and Karamifar translations, the researcher came to the conclusion that Rezai used one of the specification shifts; “semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element” which is the second type of modulation shift enjoyed the highest frequency rate, therefore Rezai made a text more cohesive than Karamifar. For example: in the following sentence Rezai made the text more cohesive by offering references for the

nouns or pronouns. Ex.

He left it to himàدرپس  شا  هداز  رهاوخ هبار کلم  درمریپ


Work Cited

Baker,  M.  (1992).  In  Other  Words:  A  Coursebook  on  Translation.

London: Routledge.

Catford,  J.  (1965).  A  Linguistic  Theory  of  Translation:  an  Essay  on

Applied Linguistic. London: Oxford University Press.

Heylen, R. (1993).Translation, poetics and the stage: Six French hamlets.

Landon: Routledge.

James, W. (1892). Psychology. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing.

Leuven-Zwart, K. M. Van (1989). Translation and Original: Similarities and Dissimilarities I, Target, 1.2, 151- 181.

Lyons,  J.  (1977).  Semantics  I,  II.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University

Press.

Munday,   J.   (2001). Introducing   Translation   Studies:   Theories   and

Applications. London and New York: Routledge.

Nida, E. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating, Leiden: E. J. Brill. Nida,  E.  A.,  &  Taber,  C.  R.  (1969).  The  Theory  and  Practice  of

Translation. Leiden: E. J. Brill.


References of Original Novel and its Persian Translations

 

Austen,     J.     (1811).     Sense     and     Sensibility.     Retrieved     from http://www.planetebook.com/Sense-and-Sensibility.asp

 

1387 ،نارهت،ینرشن تاراشتنا،ییاضر اضر ی همجرت ،ساسحا و لقع ،نیج ،نتسآ

 

1374 ،نارهت،رپتاراشتنا،رف یمرکسابعی همجرت ،هتخابلد ،نیج ،نتسآ

type of modulation shift in his translation; “stylistic modulation/ specification, parallelism (repetition)” and by doing so, he makes the text redundant and boring. For example:

- To him therefore the succession to the Norland estate was not so really important as to his sisters.

 تیمها زا وا یارب تشاد  تیمها  شنارهاوخ یارب هک هزادنا نادب دنلرون کلاما زا یدنم هرهب ور نیا زا

.دوبنرادروخربینادنچیعقاو

By more detailed comparison in both translations the researcher came to the conclusion that because the frequency of specification strategy is more than generalization, both translators aimed at making the text more comprehensible for the readership. However, by comparing Rezai and Karamifar translations, the researcher came to the conclusion that Rezai used one of the specification shifts; “semantic modulation/ specification, aspectual element” which is the second type of modulation shift enjoyed the highest frequency rate, therefore Rezai made a text more cohesive than Karamifar. For example: in the following sentence Rezai made the text more cohesive by offering references for the

nouns or pronouns. Ex.

He left it to himàدرپس  شا  هداز  رهاوخ هبار کلم  درمریپ


Work Cited

Baker,  M.  (1992).  In  Other  Words:  A  Coursebook  on  Translation.

London: Routledge.

Catford,  J.  (1965).  A  Linguistic  Theory  of  Translation:  an  Essay  on

Applied Linguistic. London: Oxford University Press.

Heylen, R. (1993).Translation, poetics and the stage: Six French hamlets.

Landon: Routledge.

James, W. (1892). Psychology. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing.

Leuven-Zwart, K. M. Van (1989). Translation and Original: Similarities and Dissimilarities I, Target, 1.2, 151- 181.

Lyons,  J.  (1977).  Semantics  I,  II.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University

Press.

Munday,   J.   (2001). Introducing   Translation   Studies:   Theories   and

Applications. London and New York: Routledge.

Nida, E. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating, Leiden: E. J. Brill. Nida,  E.  A.,  &  Taber,  C.  R.  (1969).  The  Theory  and  Practice  of

Translation. Leiden: E. J. Brill.


References of Original Novel and its Persian Translations

Austen,     J.     (1811).     Sense     and     Sensibility.     Retrieved     from http://www.planetebook.com/Sense-and-Sensibility.asp

1387 ،نارهت،ینرشن تاراشتنا،ییاضر اضر ی همجرت ،ساسحا و لقع ،نیج ،نتسآ

1374 ،نارهت،رپتاراشتنا،رف یمرکسابعی همجرت ،هتخابلد ،نیج ،نتسآ

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