A Test in Cognitive Translation Skills from English to Persian for EFL learners of the Translation | January 2016 | Translation Journal

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A Test in Cognitive Translation Skills from English to Persian for EFL learners of the Translation

Appendix One

Instructions:  

This test is designed to measure your abilities in the basic skills of Translation. It is not a final

exam for you, so don’t worry about the mark you will get. The test is divided into three sections:

     1) Reading comprehension;

     2) Analysis, and

     3) Composing.

a) Read the questions, think well and answer at your own speed.

b) Answer all the questions, and don’t leave any item without an answer.

c) Time allotted is 2 hours and total mark is 70 points.

………………………………………………………………………………………..    

Section One: Encoding .      

Read the following passage and answer the question.

It is generally well known that in a number of particularly dangerous parts of the world, for example the Middle East and the Indian/ Pakistan border region, there are countries which either possesses, or have the technology to produce, nuclear weapons. It is also worth remembering, however, that the country which possesses more nuclear weapons than any other, the United States, is the only power ever to have used nuclear weapons against people.  

     Nuclear weapons were first developed in the United States during the Second World War, to be used against Germany. However, by the time the first bombs were ready for use, the war with Germany had ended and, as a result, the decision was made to use the weapons against Japan instead. Hiroshima and Nagasaki have suffered the consequences of this decision to the present day.

     The real reasons why bombs were dropped on two heavily – populated cities are not altogether clear. A number of people in 1944 and early 1945 argued that the nuclear weapons would be unnecessary, since American intelligence was aware that some of the most powerful and influential people in Japan had already realized that the war was lost, and wanted to negotiate a Japanese surrender. It was also argued that, since Japan has few natural sources, a blockade by the American navy would force it to surrender within a few weeks, and the use of nuclear weapons would thus prove unnecessary. If a demonstration of force was required to end the war, a bomb could be dropped over an unpopulated area like a desert, in front of Japanese observer, or over an area of low population inside Japan, such as forest. Opting for this might minimize the loss of the further lives on all sides, while the power of nuclear weapons would still be adequately demonstrated.

All of the arguments were rejected, however, and the general consensus was that the quickest way to end the fighting would be to use nuclear weapons against centers of population inside Japan. In fact, two of the more likely reasons why this decision was reached seem quite shocking to us to know.  

     Since the beginning of the Second World War both Germany and Japan had adopted a policy of genocide (i.e. killing as many people as possible including civilians). Later on, even the U.S and Britain had used the strategy of firebombing cities (Dresden and Tokyo, for example) in order to kill, injure and intimidate as many civilians as possible. Certainly, the general public in the West had become used to hearing about the deaths of large number of people, so the deaths of another few thousands Japanese, who were enemy in any case, would not seem particularly unacceptable a bit of ‘justifiable’ revenge for the Allies’ own losses, perhaps.  

     The second reason is not much easier to comprehend. Some of the leading scientists in the world had collaborated to develop nuclear weapons, and this development had resulted in a number of major advances in technology and scientific knowledge. As a result, a lot of normal, intelligent people wanted to see nuclear weapons used; they wanted to see just how destructive this new invention could be. It no doubt turned out to be even more ‘effective’ than they had imagined. (Ph. D Entrance Examination, 2013, retrieved from www. Sanjeshtakmili.com)

1. The first argument for the use of nuclear weapons relates to………….                     [2marks]

                 A) Beginning the war                       B) Attacking the Germany

                 C) Killing fewer civilians                   D) The test of such weapons

2. The word ‘consensus’ in paragraph 4 can be best replaced by …………                         [2marks]

                 A) Public                                           B) Opinion

                 C) Solution                                         D) Agreement  

3. How many reasons against using weapons are given in paragraph 3?                      [2marks]

                 A) One                                           B) Two

                 C) Four                                           D) Six

4. The word ‘surrender’ in paragraph 3 means………………..                                              [2marks]

                 A) Forcing                                       B) Attacking  

                 C) Giving up                                   D) Policy – making  

5. The word “this “in line 19 refers to the end of the war.                                               [2marks]

True

False

6. According to the passage, it is true that both Germany and Britain killed civilians.     [2marks]  

True

False

  

7. The writer suggests that the United States is more likely than other countries to use nuclear weapons.                                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                         [2marks]

True

False

8. Dropping a bomb in heavily – populated cities is mentioned as demonstration of force. [2marks]

True

False

9. According to the passage, why would a blockade have been successful?                     [2marks]

10. To what does the writer refer as “normal, intelligent” people?                                    [2marks]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    

Section Two: De Coding

Translate the following sentences into Persian, explaining the difficulty you found in the sentence and how you could overcome it. (You can explain in Persian also).                                       [30marks]    

  • THIS IS AN EXAMPLE

               QUESTION: The outbreak of uprising was overwhelmingly spontaneous.

               ANSWER: a) Translation: ﺷﻴﻮعﺷﻮرشﺑﺸﻜﻞﮔﺴﺘﺮدهايﺧﻮدﺟﻮشﺑﻮد

                                   b) Difficulty: A difficulty in identifying the meaning of ‘overwhelmingly’ and ‘spontaneous’ in this sentence. (Any other related problem is accepted).

                                     c) Solution: Identifying the function of the word ‘overwhelmingly’ as an adverb and ‘spontaneous’ as an adjective and a complement. Then depending on the context of the sentence, the meaning ﺧﻮدﺟﻮش for                ‘spontaneous’ and ﺑﻪﺷﮑﻞﮔﺴﺘﺮدﻩاﯼ for overwhelmingly’ were the most appropriate ones to choose (any other related solution to above problem is also accepted).  

  

1. The general consensus was that the quickest way to end the fighting would be to use nuclear weapons against centers of population inside Japan.                                                       

A) Translation:                                                                                                                                                                      [6marks]

Sentence   Mark

0.0

 

0.5

 

1.0

 

1.5

 

2.0

 

B) Difficulty:  

 

 

 

 

 

C) Solution:

 

 

 

 

Section Two: De coding

2. If a demonstration of force was required to end the war, a bomb could be dropped over an unpopulated area like a desert, in front of Japanese observer, or over an area of low population inside Japan, such as forest.                                                                                                                                                                                                              [6marks]

A) Translation:

Sentence   Mark

0.0

 

0.5

 

1.0

 

1.5

 

2.0

 

B) Difficulty:

 

 

 

 

 

C) Solution:  

 

 

 

 

3. It was also argued that, since Japan has few natural sources, a blockade by the American navy would force it to surrender within a few weeks, and the use of nuclear weapons would thus prove unnecessary.  

A) Translation:                                                                                                                                                                    [6 marks]                                                                                                                                                 

Sentence   Mark

0.0

 

0.5

 

1.0

 

1.5

 

2.0

 

B) Difficulty:

 

 

 

 

 

C) Solution:

 

 

 

 

 

4. As a result, a lot of normal, intelligent people wanted to see nuclear weapons used; they     wanted to see just how destructive this new invention could be.                                                        

A) Translation:                                                                                                                                                                     [6marks]

Sentence   Mark

0.0

 

0.5

 

1.0

 

1.5

 

2.0

 

B) Difficulty:  

 

 

 

            

C) Solution:

 

 

 

 

1. The real reasons why bombs were dropped on two heavily – populated cities are not altogether clear.    

                                                                                                                                                                                           [6marks]                                                                                                                          

A) Translation:

Sentence   Mark

0.0

 

0.5

 

1.0

 

1.5

 

2.0

 

B) Difficulty:

 

 

 

 

C) Solution:

 

 

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Decoding Section   Mark

   

  

Section Three: Recoding

Translate the following passage into Persian.

Since the beginning of the Second World War both Germany and Japan had adopted a policy of genocide (i.e. killing as many people as possible including civilians). Later on, even the U.S and Britain had used the strategy of firebombing cities (Dresden and Tokyo, for example) in order to kill, injure and intimidate as many civilians as possible. Certainly, the general public in the West had become used to hearing about the deaths of large number of people, so the deaths of another few thousands Japanese, who were enemy in any case, would not seem particularly unacceptable a bit of ‘justifiable’ revenge for the Allies’ own losses, perhaps.      

Sentence   Mark

20.00

 

15.00

 

10.00

 

5.00

 

0.00

 

                                                TOTAL SCORE: _____________________________________________________________________

END   OF   TEST

 

 

Appendix Two

Section One: Encoding

Assign 2 marks for each question.

Answer Keys:

1. B

2. D

3. C

4. C

5. TRUE

6. TRUE

7. TRUE

8. FALSE

9. Since Japan has few natural sources, a blockade by the American navy would force it   to surrender within a few weeks, and the use of nuclear weapons would thus prove unnecessary. 10. To show how shocking the decision to use nuclear weapons was.  

Section Two: Decoding

Assign 30 marks for this section as follows:

  •  6 marks for each sentence, 2 for translation, 2 for stating the difficulty, and 2 for stating the solution technique followed. 
  • Any suitable answer to the difficulties and solutions parts are accepted. 
  • Answers in Persian are also accepted as long as they are appropriate. 
  • For sentences   translation, marks are assigned according to the following scale:  

Accuracy Scale (based on the meaning conveyed)

   [2.00 Marks]

Sentences that deserve the full mark should have the following characteristics:

1) Representation of the overall meaning in good Persian.

2) Well-built sentence structure in Persian and translation of the item of difficulty in the sentence is done

3) If the item of difficulty is a word (lexical difficulty), the translation gave a good   equivalent to it in Persian.

4) If the item of difficulty is a structure, a corresponding structure is presented in Persian.

5) If the item of difficulty is s culture-oriented expression, an equivalent cultural-oriented expression is given in Persian.

6) If the item of difficulty is an idiom, the meaning of the idiom is given in Persian, and finally, if it is a technical term, the term used in Persian is given.

   [1.50 Marks]

Sentences that take 1.5 marks represent the following characteristics:

1) All of the above but sentence structure is not fair in Persian.

2) A verb comes after the noun in a verbal sentence.

3) Basic syntax and semantic rules of Persian are not followed.

   [1.00 Mark]

 Sentences that take 1.0 mark represent the following characteristics:

1) Meaning of individual expressions and phrases within the sentence is given. 2) The overall meaning of the sentence is not conveyed. 3) Structure in Persian is not fair.  

   [0.50 Mark]  

 Sentences that take half a mark represent the following characteristics:

1) Overall   meaning   is   misunderstood   and misrepresented.

2) Meaning of item of difficulty is misrepresented.

3) The structure in Persian is disfigured.

4) Translation in this level will get chunks of translation for individual words and expressions in the sentence.      

[0.00 Mark]  

Sentences that take 0 marks represent the following characteristics:

1) The sentence is left untranslated.

2) A translation of a different sentence is given.

3) The source sentence is copied.  

 

Section Three: Recoding

Assign 20 marks to this part as follows:                                            

GEMA Scale (based on Grammar, Expression, Mechanic, Accuracy)      

[20.00 Marks]

An answer that will have the full mark will have the following characteristics:

1) Native – like fluency in the grammar of Persian.

2) Correct use of relative clause, preposition, modals, articles, verb forms, and tense sequencing and no fragments or run – on sentences.

3) Precise vocabulary usage; use of parallel structures, concise, register good.

4) Attempts variety; not wordy and style fairly concise.

5) Correct use of Persian writing conventions, left and right margins, all needed capitals, paragraphs indented, punctuation and spelling very neat.

6) Representation of the overall meaning in good Persian.

7) Well-build sentence structure in Persian is done.

8) Good choice of vocabulary, appropriate reformulation of ideas, and use of cohesive devices as followed in Persian.

9) No deviation from the ideas in the source text is occurred; no drops or missing ideas or sentences in the translation is made.

     [15.00 Marks]

     An answer that will have the full mark will have the following characteristics

1) Advanced proficiency in the grammar of Persian; some structure problems do not influence communication, although the reader is aware of them; no fragments or run – on sentences. 2) Some vocabulary misused; lacks awareness of register; may be too wordy. 3) Some problems with writing conventions or punctuation; occasional spelling errors; left margin correct; paper is neat and legible.

4) Representation of the overall meaning in good Persian but with some mistakes in the formulation of ideas.

Section Three: Recoding

5) Well-build sentence structure in Persian is done. 6) Minor mistakes in the verb agreement or case marking with verbs. 7) Good choice of vocabulary; accurate formulation of ideas. 8) Use of cohesive devices as followed in Persian. 9) No deviation from the ideas in the source text; one or two drops or missing ideas or sentences in the translation.

     [10.00 Marks]

An answer that will have the full mark will have the following characteristics

1) Ideas are getting through to the reader but structure problems are apparent and have a negative effect on communication.

2) Run – on sentence or fragments present.

3) Use general writing conventions but has errors; spelling problems distract reader; punctuation errors interfere with ideas.

4) Poor expression of ideas.

5) Representation of the overall meaning in Persian is understood with difficulty. 6) Sentence structure in Persian deviates from most regular rules.

7) Major mistakes in the verb agreement or case marking with verbs.

8) Choice of vocabulary conveys the overall meaning but not the accurate meaning of individual expressions.

9) Redundant use of cohesive devices.

10) Deviation from the ideas in the source text. Three or four drops or missing ideas or sentences in the translation.

     [5.0 Marks] 

An answer that will have the full mark will have the following characteristics

1) Numerous serious structure problems interfere with communication of the writers’ ideas; structure review of some areas clearly needed; difficult to read sentences.

2) Serious problems with format of the paper; parts of paragraph not legible.

3) Errors in sentences final punctuations: unacceptable to educated readers.

4) Problems in vocabulary; lacks variety of structure.

5) Overall meaning is misunderstood and misrepresented.

6) Meaning of item of expressions and vocabulary is misrepresented.

7) Structure in Persian is disfigured.

8) A translation in this level will get chunks of translation for individual words and expressions in the sentence.

9) A remarkable deviation from ideas in the source text.

10) Half the passage is left untranslated or just copied from the source text.

     [0.0Mark]

An answer that will have the full mark will have the following characteristics

1) Severe structure problems interfere greatly with the message.

2) Reader cannot understand what the writer was trying to say.

3) Unintelligible sentence structure.

4) Complete disregard for Persian writing conventions.

5) Paper illegible, obvious capitals missing, no margins, severe spelling problems.

6) Inadequate use of vocabulary; no concept or register or sentence variety.

7) The passage is left untranslated.

8) A translation of a different passage is given.

9) The source passage is copied.        

 Suggested Translation

ازآﻧﺠﺎﻳﻲﻛﻪدراﺑﺘﺪايﺟﻨﮓﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲدومآﻟﻤﺎنوژاﭘﻦﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖﻧﺴﻞﻛﺸﻲ )ﻏﻴﺮﻧﻈﺎﻣﻲﻛﺸﺘﺎرﺑﻲاﻧﺪازهﻫﺎ ( راﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪﺑﻮدﻧﺪاﻳﺎﻻتﻣﺘﺤﺪهآﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎوﺑﺮﻳﺘﺎﻧﻴﺎﻧﻴﺰازراﻫﺒﺮدﺑﻤﺒﺎرانﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ   ) ازﺟﻤﻠﻪدرﺳﺪنوﺗﻮﻛﻴﻮ (   آﺳﻴﺐزدنواﻳﺠﺎدرﻋﺐووﺣﺸﺖ،ﺟﻬﺖﻗﺘﻞﻋﺎمﻣﻴﺎنﻏﻴﺮﻧﻈﺎﻣﻴﺎنﺑﻲﺷﻤﺎرياﺳﺘﻔﺎدهﻛﺮدﻧﺪ . ﻗﻄﻌĤ ﻣﺮدمدرﻛﺸﻮرﻫﺎيﻏﺮﺑﻲﺑﻪﺷﻨﻴﺪناﺧﺒﺎرﻛﺸﺘﺎرﻫﺎيﺟﻤﻌﻲﻋﺎدتﻛﺮدهﺑﻮدﻧﺪوﻣﺮگﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦﻫﺰارژاﭘﻨﻲﻛﻪﺑﻪﻫﺮﺣﺎلدﺷﻤﻦآﻧﻬﺎﺣﺴﺎبﻣﻲﺷﺪﻧﺪدرﻗﺒﺎلآﺳﻴﺐﻫﺎيواردهﺑﻪﻣﺘﺤﺪﻳﻦﺑﻪراﺣﺘﻲﺗﻮﺳﻂآﻧﻬﺎﻗﺎﺑﻞﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪﺑﻮدواﻳﻦﻛﺸﺘﺎرﺷﺎﻳﺪﺑﺨﺶﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲازاﻧﺘﻘﺎمآﻧﻬﺎﻣﺤﺴﻮبﻣﻲﺷﺪ .

 Any other correct translation is accepted …

.

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