Theories and Strategies of Political-Nuclear Texts in the Jordanian Senate | April 2016 | Translation Journal

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Theories and Strategies of Political-Nuclear Texts in the Jordanian Senate

Abstract

The paper aims to shed light on a distinct text type "political-nuclear text" in the process of translating through examining examples from the IPU's "inter- parliamentary Union" papers which has been introduced to the Jordan Senate. The paper distinguishes between three different theories and their relation to the political text in general. According to this, the paper finds that text-type theory considers the most appropriate theory in translating the political text. Also the paper discusses the strategies on both the text level, and terminology level. The paper chooses many strategies throughout the translation; foreignization, because the ST is concerned with a global issue. The paper also approves the overt translation, on one hand, is entailed by keeping the characteristics and features of the ST; Covert translation, on the other hand, produces the readability of the TT. Also discusses the Intrinsic managing which leads to a functional equivalent in the TT, in the contrary of extrinsic managing that is the translator's ideological superimpositionon the ST. In the terminological level the researcher finds that the informative text-type theory is a suitable choice in the translating process, also adopts several strategies to translate the political and nuclear terms.

Keyword: political translation, nuclear terms, intrinsic managing, domestication, text- type theory, overt translation, covert translation.

 

1. Introduction:

Ever since Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bomb was dropped, humanity has been living under terrible threats, these threats result from an imminent nuclear catastrophe that may destroy all life on our planet.

All the international organizations and parliamentary forums, even us as citizens, see that parliamentarians have a crucial responsibility to save the world and protect the future generations. Their role has been represented through taking measures and mechanisms aimed at securing a nuclear weapon-free world, curbing the military spending and interfering, and interviewing national security doctrines. Parliamentarians can apply this role via ratification on certain treaties and agreements, participation in meetings related to nuclear threats, and cooperation with international organizations and institutions to achieve this goal.

Parliamentarians are in a dire need for sufficient data and knowledge to fulfill these roles. Since this is a foreign science and a new field to the Arab world, so the most available data are in a foreign language (especially English) with other translated papers. Here is the challenge: how can parliamentarians in the Arab world take decisions and strongly participate in the international forums without a full background about the topic and its dimensions, since many of parliamentarians are not bilinguals or nor have a second language beside Arabic.

From my work as a translator at the Jordanian Senate and in the sight of translating many papers and a book in this topic under the name of "supporting Nuclear Non Proliferation and Disarmament (IPU 2012)", I have found that translation in the political - nuclear field needs special strategies and methods. According to Newmark, (1981) in (As Safi 2007:21) translation theory is concerned mainly with determining appropriate translation methods for the widest possible range of texts or text- categories. It also provides a frame work of principles, restricted rules and hints for translating texts and criticizing translations, a background for problem solving.

As-Safi (2007:21) mentions that any theory should be concerned with translation strategies adopted to address difficulties and problems in certain complicated texts. Thus, this research aims at applying the suitable theory in translating political-nuclear text, and finding the appropriate strategies and methods of translating political-nuclear text on both the text level and the terminology level. In addition to that, it demonstrates the constraints through translating process.

1.1. Question of the research

  • How this political-nuclear text differs from another political text
  • Which theory can we apply on the political-nuclear text
  • What are the acceptable strategies that can serve the TT in this kind of texts

 

2. Methodology

All the theoretical aspects for the political-nuclear texts in this paper will be examined under Holmes frame work that describes what translation studies cover (Holmes: 1995). Depending on the theory approach and guided by the known strategies for prominent scientists.

Pym (2010:5) states that "since all translators are always theorizing, it would be quit wrong separate the theory from the practice of which it is already a part. The best uses of theory are actually in active discussions about different ways of solving translation problems. You can promote that kind of discussion on the basis of translations that students have already done. You will find that, at some points, one group of students will disagree with another group. Get those groups to debate the point, then suggest the appropriate terms and concepts once the students have demonstrated their need for those things. In this way, students come to theories only when they find they need them. Classes on individual theories or paradigms can then build on that practical basis.

The research follows suit this methodology and compares two different points of views with explaining each of them to get a new results that enriching the research.

Figure number 1:

Theories and Strategies Figure 1

2.1. Material and method

This part illustrates the material that was translated, and the method that has been applied which based on theoretical view.

2.1.1. Material

The material that was translated is a collection of papers, speeches, and a book under the name of "supporting Nuclear Non Proliferation and Disarmament (IPU 2012)" related to the inter-parliamentary union and Jordan senate.

2.1.2. Method

The translation was conducted according to a specific strategies and techniques for the political translation, also bearing in mind the specialty of nuclear technical terms, and how to install them in a political text in a natural, acceptable, and understandable way. Also the translator explains the stylistic and cultural issues and trying to adapt these issues in professional and aesthetic method.

2.1.3. Intended reader

The intended readers of this ST are the parliamentarians in the worldwide, who speak English as mother language or second language. In the translated papers TT the intended readers are the Arab parliamentarians in general and the Jordanian parliamentarians in particular.

 

3. The theoretical background

3.1. Partial theoretical study:

Munday (2008:10) states that partial theoretical study concerns with establishing general principles to explain and predict such phenomena according to. Here in our research the discussion will be partial, due the specific issue that we are tackle. After examining the theories of translation we should answer the question of what is the appropriate translation theory that we can apply on our text.

3.1.1. The first theory examined here in the paper is the linguistic theory, the most proponents of these theories are: Nida, Roger Bell, Catford. According to As Safi (2007:25) the linguistic theory views translation as simply a question of replacing the linguistic units of ST (source text) with equivalent TL units without reference to factors such as context or connotation. Also Nida and Taber, (1969:134) in (As Safi 2007:24) state that is only a linguistic translation that can be considered "faithful" because it "is one which only contains elements which can be directly derived from the ST wording, avoiding any kind of explanatory interpolation or cultural adjustment. On the other hand, Yang,(2012) in (Sanatifar 2015:131) explains that while in Nida's theory attention is on equivalence of meaning and style, in his concept of political equivalence there is an emphasis on the equivalence of political connotations (accuracy, faithfulness, acceptability and dynamicity).

3.1.2. The second theory discussed in this paper is the philosophical theory, presented by George Steiner, As Safi, (2007:25) states that it's primarily emphasizes the psychological and intellectual functioning of the mind of translator, also he elucidates that meaning and understanding underlie the translation process, averring that a theory of translation is essentially a theory of semantic transfer from SL into TL. Steiner (Steiner, 1975:249) in (As Safi 5 2007:24) defines, in his theory, his hermeneutic approach as "the investigation of what it means to understand a piece of oral speech or written text, and the attempt to diagnose the process in terms of a general model of meaning". He introduces his model in what he calls "Hermeneutic Motion to describe the process of literary translation. Also, according to (As Safi, 2007:24) Steiner looks upon the act of translation in the context of human communication across barriers of language, culture, time and personality. The Philosophical theory partially consists with Yang's view of political translation, in (in Sanatifar 2015:131) that the translator should fully understand the political text. Firstly, Yang states that the translator should do discourse analysis in translation and analyze the political meanings by “reading between the lines”. Secondly, political translation methods should not be confined to linguistic forms. Here, he refers to the translation of idioms, allusions, myths and fables in political contexts and states that the translator must distinguish between their cultural connotations and political orientations and adopt a “mixed translation method”. Thirdly, the translator must be familiar with disparities in historical cultures, national customs, feelings and ideologies between the languages he is translating. Fourthly, the translator must have a good command of foreign policy and ensure “political correctness.” Lastly, he refers to the special use of grammatical phenomena and rules.

3.1.3. The third theory is text –type theory among "functional theories" As Safi (2007:27) presented by Reiss, that witnessed a shift from the static linguistic typologies of translation and the emergence, in Germany, of a functionalist and communicative approach to the analysis of translation. Reiss links the functional characteristics of text types to translation methods, and summarized main characteristics.

Table number 1.

Text type

Translation method

Informative: it is concerned with "plain communication of facts": information, knowledge, opinions, etc. the language dimension used to transmit the information is logical or referential; the content or topic is the main focus of the communication.

The method should transmit the full referential or conceptual content of the ST. the translation should be "plain prose" without redundancy, but with the use of explication when required.

Expressive: it denotes the "creative composition" wherein the author uses the aesthetic dimension of the language.

The TT of an expressive text should transmit the aesthetic and artistic form of the ST. The translation should use the "identifying" method, with the translator adopting the stand point of ST author.

Operative: The purpose is to induce behavioral responses, i.e. to appeal to or persuade the reader or receiver of the text to act in a certain way.

The TT of an operative text should produce the desired response in the TT receiver.

Audiomedial: It refers to films and visual or spoken advertisements which supplement the other three functions with visual images, music, etc.

Audiomedial texts require the "supplementary" method, written words with visual images and music.

Yang in (Sanatifar: 132) states that translator should:

  1. Fully understanding the political context of the speaker and accurately communicating the connotation of time in the diplomatic source language. For this, he claims that the meanings of words and their connotations change with time and environment and explains that even the same idiom or literary illusions may have different meanings within different contexts or in a specific political environment.
  2. Conveying political meanings to the recipients in popular language form by highly integrating the policy information availability of the translation version with the effect of the original version.
  3. Working towards dynamic, rather than formal, political equivalence.
  4. Paying attention to balancing the SL and the TL, the context of the source language and the context of the audience, and the speaker and the audience, without bias to either side (what he calls “dual identification”).

 

4. Text type restricted:

Looks at discourse types and genres; e.g. literary, business and technical translation. Nord (2005:1) adds that translation-oriented text analysis should not only ensure full comprehension and correct interpretation of the text or explain its linguistic and textual structures and their relationship with the system and norms of the source language (SL). It should also provide a reliable foundation for each and every decision which the translator has to make in particular translation process. For this purpose, it must be integrated into an overall concept of translation that will serve as a permanent frame of reference for translator.

Also (Munday 2001: 72-82) says that the concept of text type is introduced with regard to certain text type having certain communicative functions, which again leads to certain translation strategies. Other key features are the perception of translation as an act of intercultural communication and the focus on both purpose and circumstances regarding the TT and the ST as well. Nord, (2005:2) adds, in introducing a specific model for political translation, that the model should therefore be (a) general enough to be applicable to any text and (b) specific enough to take account of as many generalizable translation problems as possible. Wright (1993: 175-176) adds, the character of text comprehension would not change basically, although experience and expectation will become model- based analysis has on the selection of translation strategies, i.e. its role in helping the translator work faster and more accurately,.

Wright divided the texts into two parts transfactual: main goal to enhance recipients' factual knowledge base; transbehavioral texts, which influence recipients by stimulating their behavior toward persons, facts, situations. (Ibid 177) According to Muna Baker (2005:188) in As Safi (2007:47) the translation study is a procedure for solving a problem encountered in translating a text or a segment of it. Given the distinction between micro- level and macro-level problems, strategies can be divided between local ones which deal with text segments and global strategies interact with relevant elements of the translator's background knowledge:

As Safi categorizes the strategies into two categories:(1) general strategies which deal with different text types (2) specific strategies which tackle a certain text type, readership, and skopos.

4.1. Domestication and foreignization strategies

Domestication and foreignization are two basic strategies which provide linguistic and cultural guidance. According to L.Venuti (1995:4) in (Yang,2010:77) the former refers to "an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target-language cultural values, bring the author back home," while the latter is "an ethnodeviant pressure on those (cultural) values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text, sending the reader abroad". Generally speaking, domestication designates the type of translation in which a transparent, fluent style is adopted to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text for target language readers, while foreignization means a target text is produced which deliberately breaks target conventions by retaining something of the foreignness of the original (Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997:59) in (Yang,2010:77). According to (Yang 2010:77) Domestication and foreignization are concerned with the two cultures, the former meaning replacing the source culture with the target culture and the latter preserving the differences of the source culture. Only when there are differences in both linguistic presentation and cultural connotation, domestication and foreignization exist.

Venuti goes with Foriegnization strategy and states (1995:20) that the "foreign in foreignizing translation is not a transparent representation of an essence that resides in the foreign text and is valuable in itself, but a strategic construction whose value is contingent on the current target-language situation. Foreignizing translation signifies the difference of the foreign text, yet only by disrupting the cultural codes that prevail in the target language.

Also what I found related to my political topic in Venuti point of view is (1995:20) that foreignizing translation in English can be a form of resistance against ethnocentrism and racism, cultural narcissim and imperialism, in the interest of democratic geopolitical relations. Also Venuti adds in (1995:24) the notion of foreignization can alter the ways translations are read as well as produced because it assumes a concept of human subjectivity that is very different from the humanist assumptions underlying domestication. Which is consist with Nida opinion about the translator's subjectivity (1964:154) that the translator should never tack on his own impressions or distort the message to fit his own intellectual and emotional outlook.

4.2. Covert and overt translation

According to House (1977:106) an overt translation is one in which the TT addressees are not being directly addressed; thus an overt translation is one which must overtly be a translation, not, as it were , a (second original). In an overt translation the ST is tied in a specific manner to the source language community and culture. However, although the ST was originally directed at source language addressees, it also points beyond the source language community, having potential general human interest. STs that call for an overt translation have an established worth or status in the source language community and potentially in other communities. Such STs may be divided into two groups: 1. Over historically linked STs 2. Overt timeless STs. House adds also that a direct match of the original function of the ST is not possible in overt translation either because the ST is tied to a specific, non-repeatable historic event in the source culture or because of the unique status (as a literary text) that the ST has in the source culture. In addition to the cases of overt translation present difficulties precisely because the nature of their status in the socio-cultural context of the source language community which must be topicalized in the target culture, frequently necessitates major changes.

On the other hand, House (1977:107) states that a covert translation is a translation which enjoys or enjoyed the status of an original ST in the target culture. The translation is covert because it is not marked pragmatically as a TT of an ST but may, conceivably, have been created in its own right. In order to clarify the distinctions between these two types of translations and versions, we may now turn to some concrete examples. An overt-historically linked ST which has the status of a document of an historical event in the source culture is exemplified by a political speech delivered by political figure at a certain time and place addressed to a certain specified audience, or by a sermon given by a minister at a certain time, in a specific environment and directed at a certain audience. While in covert translation (ibid: 108) the translator has to place a cultural filter between ST and TT, i.e., he has to, as it were, view ST through the glasses of a target culture member.

4.3. Managing or monitoring

The term "situation managing" was defined by de Beaugrande and Dressler (1981) in Farghal (1993:257) to steer the text in a way that serves the text producer's goals. By contrast exposition exhibits monitoring of the situation where a reasonably detached account is provided. Thus managing vs. monitoring is a discoursal parameter contingent on the text-type. Consequently, in the process of discoursing, an author may opt for managing and /or monitoring depending on the text-type he has chosen.

Farghal (1993) mentions two categories of managing; the first is intrinsic managing that relates to the alterations effected in the TL text due to the mismatches existing between the TL and the source language (SL). These mismatches range from the most micro to the macro levels, leaving without managing would bring about unintelligible translations, hence a broke down in communication. Extrinsic managing, on the other hand, relates to the translator's ideological superimposition on the TL text aiming to gear the TL text's message toward meeting his own goals

 

5. Terminology in political-nuclear texts

Sager (1990:2) claimed that terminology is an interdisciplinary field of study, and the common element among these disciplines is that they are each concerned, at least in part, with the formal organization of the complex relationships between concepts and terms. Sager defines terminology as the study of and the field of activity concerned with the collection, description, processing and presentation of terms, i.e. lexical items belonging to specialized areas of usage. Also Remigio (2013:198) defines terminology as an interdisciplinary field that closely interacts with lexicography, information and documentation science, translation, technical communication, computer engineering, among others.

Zanon states (8:2011) that specialized lexicons have increased significantly, making the command of specialized languages a key element in modern professional life. Very frequently, there are misunderstandings between non-specialists, although problems of understanding among specialists are also common. That is way the registration of new specialized terms becomes so important in these specialized fields, in order to clarify and determine their exact meaning and promote their appropriate use in a particular area of specialization. This sort of communication problems becomes even more noticeable in situations where we find interlocutors who speak different languages. These situations are very common nowadays because of the increasing need for international collaboration in specialized fields. Thus, the specialized translator, who combines the knowledge of a particular area with the understanding of specialized languages, has also grown in importance in the last years.

Also Zanon (9:2011) distinguishes between three types of users of terminology

1.Direct users (specialists in specific field like lawyers, doctors, biologists)

2.Indirct users are professionals belonging to linguistic Sciences. This group includes translators, linguists, reviewers, philologists, etc...

3.Terminologists are those linguists who are specialized in Terminology.

Since our main concern is technical terminology in the political- nuclear field, Newmark (1988:151) states that technical translation is primarily distinguished from other forms of translation by terminology, although terminology usually only makes up about 5-10% of a text. Its characteristics, its grammatical features merge with other varieties of language. The purpose of any new standardization is always to establish a single one-to-one relationship between a referent and its name. The less important the referent, the more likely the relationship is to hold. As soon as the "currency" of the referent increases its name is like to acquire figurative senses. However, the central difficulty in technical translation is usually the new terminology, I think the best approach to an opaquely technical text is to underline what appear to be its key terms when you first read it and then look them up (even if you think you know them - my memory is full of words I halt know or do not know) in the micro of the Encyclopedia Bntannica and the relevant Penguin. Newmark (2001:73-74) adds that all obsolete terms, unless they have established translation equivalents, should be transcribed. These are token words, which give the color and flavor of a period and when translated they sound ridiculous. Also he adds that most international institutional terms have official translations, made by translator teams, at the appropriate international organization. These are often through-translations (calques "loan- translations"). However, (ibid: 75) an individual translator's main task is to find the authorized translation, not make his own.

Newmark (2001:75-77) proposes to list the relevant translation procedures and then to offer some general criteria of reference. Some of these procedures are: Transcription (adoption, transfer, loan words); Literal translation (this is a coincidental procedure, used when the SL term is transparent or semantically motivated and is in standardized language); Through-translation (loan-translation, calque); Recognized translation (these translations should be used for administrative texts); Cultural equivalent; Translation labels (a translation label is an approximate equivalent or a new term, usually a collocation, for a feature peculiar to the SL culture); Translation couplets (the most common form of translation couplet consist of the transcription of an institutional term followed by its translation in brackets, the SL term would be retained for the remainder of the text and in the relevant TL literature); Translation triplets; Deletion; and Naturalization (the process of "Anglicizing" foreign names).

While Newmark warns that when the translator is in doubt, he should transcribe rather than translate. Nida (1975) agrees on this point in (Newmark 2001:81) that literalness and the attempts to translate everything are the translator's worst fault. A translation should be attempted only if the new term adequately describes the function of the original work. Newmark (2001:81) recommends that one has to guard against three common mistakes: (1) new translation of terms that already have recognized translations, (2) use of TL terms that have a strong local color, (3) preposterous word- for-word translations, i.e. translationese.

Translation theories deduced many strategies that translators can rely on them through the translation process.

5.1. Borrowing which considered as taking a word or expression straight from another language, without translation. The procedure is normally used when a term does not exist in the TL, or when the translator tries to get some stylistic or exotic effect. As Guerra (7:2012).

5.2. Calque which defined by Vinay and Darbelen, in Guerra (8:2012) as a literal translation (either lexical or structural) of a foreign word or phrase. It could actually be considered a special type of loan or borrowing, since the translator borrows the SL expression or structure and then transfers it in a literal translation.

5.3. Adaptation according to (Viny and Darbelent) in Guerra (7:2012) is used in those cases in which the type of situation being referred to by the SL message is unknown in the TL and translators create a new situation that can be described as situational equivalence. So it can be understood as cultural, dynamic or functional equivalence.

 

6. Discussion

The texts we tackle are political, discuss the proliferation of the nuclear weapons in the world and call all parliaments to take measures and procedures to eliminate and abolish the nuclear weapons in their countries. This discourse will be discussed through two levels; the text level, and the terminology level. In addition to that, we'll find the appropriate theory and strategies for each of them and apply these strategies on our texts by mentioning some examples.

6.1. The text level

Holmes in (Munday, 2001:76) means by the description of the „function [of translations] in the recipient sociocultural situation: it is a study of contexts rather than texts‟. Issues that may be researched include which texts were translated when and where, and the influences that were exerted (in Mundy ibid.). Here in our political-nuclear texts the translator should be aware of the context of the text, should know also the parties, coalitions of major powers in nuclear world, and following up the status quo in his region and in the world in general, since this issue is a global issue. These factors facilitate the process of understanding, analyzing, and translating the text, make the translator aware of the sensitivity of certain issues in the text, produce more acceptable TT, and avoid plunging translator's country or institution in any crisis or problems as a result of a mistake in translation.

In section number 3 we examine 3 theories; the linguistic theory, the philosophical theory, and the functional theories (text type theory). The linguistic theory sees the translation method as replacing the linguistic units of ST with equivalent TL units without reference to factors such as context or connotation, (As Safi, 2007:25). From a practical point of view, political translation depends on wide knowledge of the translated topic, understand the text, and analyze it. These requirements can help the translator and assist him/her to transfer the functional meaning faithfully, which consists of connotation and contextual aspects, to reach to the real intention of the ST writer. These steps are not existing in the linguistic theory which cares only about linguistic unit and meaning without mentioning the contextual aspects and connotation. Some translators may find that linguistic theory faithful to the sensitivity of the political text. But from my point of view I find that the faithfulness to the ST in the political field occurs when the TT transmits the connotation of the word, not only the denotative meaning, and the contextual aspects.

The philosophical theory complies with the requirements of the political translation in a wide range. Since this theory depends on hermeneutic approach, i.e. the understanding and analyzing process through translation. But it contradicts from the side of not mentioning the connotation and contextual aspects of the text and considering the translation as a semantic transfer only "literary translation".

The third is text-type theory; this theory provides different kinds of texts and proposes specific translation methods, this aspect complies with the peculiarity of the political text. I found that the political-nuclear text, according to the classifications of the theory, considers an informative text and operative text. Informative from the side of introducing the information and knowledge about the nuclear weapons and the policies that related to this topic, in this case the theory suggests the congruent methods to transmit the intended meaning accurately and faithfully. Also it considers operative from the side of stimulating the readers "parliamentarians" to take the needed measures and steps to abolish the nuclear weapons, the theory suggests a method to transmit the meaning in a functional way. This alteration in the same text requires a special theory and methods that fulfill the requirements of the political- nuclear text. The text-type theory can serve the translator by its ability to covert the methods according to the type of the text. In addition to that this theory takes into account the characteristics of each text and transmits it in a functional way, also it unifies the reactions of the ST and TT's readers due to preserving the function of the text. The researcher found that text type theory can be an appropriate choice for the translator in the political field. Since it widely respects the features of the political text and it considers a product oriented approach.

Figure number 2

Theories and Strategies Figure 2

According to Wright classifications, the political text occurs between transfactual, since it provides knowledge and information to parliamentarians about the international policies and nuclear weapons. And transbehavioral, since it stimulates the parliamentarians to take steps and measures to eliminate weapons of mass destructions.

In respect to domestication and foreignaization which are two opposite strategies and the translator should adopt one of them throughout the translation. In the political translation we face different political systems and many regimes fall in the global system, which adopt various names for the same content according to the law and constitution in certain country. Consequently, the ranks and the names of institutions are differing according to each system. For example the name of the head of the state is different in each state; some of them call it the President, king, or Amir according to its constitution, political system and history. It is obvious that the positions and ranks are different, like the foreign minister in Jordan is called Secretary of state in the United Sates. In addition to that, there is a global language and tone that is understood by all country and political parties, this language widely spread as result of the international cooperation, agreements and treaties, and the active international organizations. Also it should bear in mind that this kind of books and papers are not specific for a certain country or regime, it is pointed to whole Arab word, which consists of several regimes and political system also. Based on this, can we adopt foriegnization or domestication? As Safi in (2007:47) states that domestication is often adopted by literary translation, which prefers domestication to bridge the cultural gabs between two cultures. While the problem is not the culture in the political text, it‟s to find a way to implement and adopt a common policy through these various political systems. For these reasons, the researcher finds that foriegnization is preferable in translating political texts, from the point that politicians have well knowledge in the various systems over the world, and do not need domestication to make it known for them. Here in our field the political- nuclear text I'll illustrate an example about the legislative authority in various countries and how the translation differs according to the original text or name:

1. The Costa Rican Legislative Assembly unanimously endorsed the Parliamentary Declaration Supporting a Nuclear Weapons Convention. 

1

2. The Bangladesh Parliament unanimously adopted a resolution.

2

3. The Australian House of Representatives adopted a resolution.

3

4. The Committee‟s report and subsequent discussions in the Norwegian Stortinget (Parliament) led to the adoption of the Ethical Guidelines.

4

5. In German: The Bundestag Subcommittee on Disarmament and Arms Control.

5

6. At the request of the Bush Administration, the US Congress repealed a prohibition of research and development of “low-yield” nuclear weapons. ً

6

As it's shown, there are six names for the same institution the "legislative authority"; therefore, each institution in each country has a distinct legislative process in making laws. We can apply this on the ranks and names of different political positions, like the ministers, parliamentarians and others in addition to, the names of governmental institutions. So the domestication strategy should not exceed the linguistic level, which helps to make it accepted in the standard Arabic language. Using foriegnization strategy can lead to the right political equivalent; it also depends on the political knowledge of the translator and deep research.

Covert and overt translation, the political-nuclear text tackles a global issue which is not tied to a specific manner to the source language and having potential general human interest, since the source community is the whole world. According to House's classification we can consider the political speech over historically linked STs and overt Timeless STs. The question here, how can we apply this strategy? Since the political text needs an overt translation, I think that the translation should deal overtly with information, issues, and terms that the texts tackle without placing a cultural filter. While it should deal covertly in the linguistic level, to make the text readable and not weak in the target language, so it should be treated overtly as a global issue and covertly as a composition that needs to be readable to TL readers. Here, I think that the product will be high quality and fulfill the requirements of the political texts, since readability and acceptability considered requirements to attract the reader and listeners in the political discourse.

In an attempt to link between foriegnization vs. domestication and covert vs. overt strategies. The researcher finds that domestication and covert translation follow the cultural adjustments and cultural filter. While foriegnization and overt translation do not follow any cultural adjustments. From this point we can consider that foriegnization leads to overt translation, and domestication leads to covert translation.

From the definition to management and monitoring the paper finds that the translator has two options as he/she translating the text. Whether to translate through managing or through monitoring strategy. Which one conserves the intention of the source text and the intention of the original writer? Which strategy can create the same effects on the addressees of the TT? Monitoring transfer the meaning faithfully and in a direct way. But cannot create or gain the same effects on the recipients of TT, on the other hand can we accept any kind of managing in TT? If we accept the managing to which extent can we manage the TT? Also, can we say that managing is more appropriate for translation in general and political translation in particular?

The monitoring transfers the meaning faithfully but it not sufficient to achieve the functional political equivalent. While the controlled managing that bases on obvious rules, helps the achieving of functional political equivalent. According to Farghal's classification of intrinsic managing and extrinsic managing, in the political translation there is no place for the extrinsic translation, since it permits the ideological superimposition in the text by the translator. This intervention leads to convert the real meaning of the ST and the translator adds additional meaning to the original meaning. This additional meaning in the political filed has consequences and results on the TT readers. Here, we can ask who are the readers of the political text? The readers are politicians (who can change the public opinion), decision makers, and decision takers. Therefore, unlike the literary text, the political text cannot be burdened with additional meaning because this thing may lead to political crisis, new decisions, or changing the public opinion.

Here I'm mentioning some examples about intrinsic managing, and how the translator avoids extrinsic managing.

7.   They help to give disarmament not only vision, but also some backbone, muscle, and teeth.

7

The translator doesn't translate backbone, muscle and teeth in a word by word or literal translation, because if he/ she do so the translation will not only be silly but also unfaithful, because it does not transfer the intention of the writer.

In the next example we notice that the translator changed the order of the words and put the noun "nuclear weapon in the first of the sentence, which is according to the Arabic style and add more elements of cohesion to the text.

8. “Testing, use, manufacture, production or acquisition by any means whatsoever of any nuclear weapons”.

8

Also the translator keeps the dynamicity of the Arabic language, and does not reflect the English word order in the sentence on the Arabic sentence word order. See the following example:

9. Parliamentarians in the nuclear-armed countries probably have the greatest responsibility to take action on multiple fronts.

9

10.Israel supports the concept of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, but only after comprehensive peace is achieved in the region.

10

There are many examples that show the intrinsic managing in the translation, but what I found that intrinsic managing helps the translator to achieve the criterial components of the text; cohesion coherence, intentionality, acceptability, informativity, situationality, and intertextuality.

On the other hand, the extrinsic managing is a critical point in political translation, since it has great consequences throughout the history of the states, and we have many examples that show how the ideological intervention of the translator affects the whole situation and leads to serious complicated relations.

In the translation in political/nuclear field, the translator may found many situations that contradict with his/her view, but acting toward these situations should be objective and without bias to any part. Here, in the following example, the situation illustrates claims about justifications to acquire nuclear weapons for some countries such as Israel and Iran. These two countries are considering controversial issues in the world, so whether you support them or not you should translate the content faithfully as it is. Also on the lexical level, the example mentioned Israel, so what you will do if you think that its "Zionist entity" or "Occupation"? In this case the translator should stick with the context and transfer the names as the original write it to show the real intention of the original writer. In addition to that, you should bear in mind the position of your institution, to avoid bad consequences for the institution.

11. Others claim that nuclear deterrence is perhaps not required by countries with large and modern conventional forces or where there is little realistic risk of invasion that would threaten the existence of the State, but might perhaps be required by smaller countries in vulnerable positions that have been threatened with attack, such as Israel, the Islamic Republic of Iran or the Democratic People‟s Republic of Korea.

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This is also another situation:

12. Israel is believed to have produced nuclear weapons, commencing its nuclear programme in the 1960s in response to a perceived threat to its security – and even its existence – from Arab neighbours and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Israel does not admit it has nuclear weapons, as such admission could provide a rationale for other Middle East countries to also acquire them. Nor, however, does it deny it possesses nuclear weapons, in order to ensure that “enemies” are deterred from attacking in the belief that Israel could respond with such weapons. Israel supports the concept of a Middle East zone free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, but only after comprehensive peace is achieved in the region. 

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6.2. Terminology level

The most significant problem that translators face through translating from English language into Arabic language is terminology. This is due to lack of terms in Arabic language in the majority of new and technical fields. The communication in specialized fields is widely spread nowadays. Here, our main concern is nuclear terminology, and how we can find the equivalent for them in Arabic, what is the method to deduce it? It is the same method for political discourse? This is what the paper wants to illustrate it, and to show how the translator copes with the nuclear terminology in these texts by researching beyond the dictionaries.

The nuclear terms here fall in a political, diplomatic context, and used out of its technical context. So it needs a specific attention in translation and trys to be faithful to the meaning with making it accepted in the political context.

According Zanon classification the researcher found that the translators of nuclear- political texts occur in the second class "indirect users" and also the recipients of nuclear-political texts, in spite that they are not translators or interpreters, but in fact they are mediators between the nuclear scientists and decisions makers. The first class (direct user) and the third class (terminologists) had been excluded because parliamentarians are not specialists in nuclear fields also are not terminologists, so the researcher found that the appropriate class is the indirect users.

When you first read the term in English it may mean nothing for you because it‟s a technical term known only by experts. Consequently, the translator, as indirect user of the terms, should start with 1. Understand and analyze the term of ST, by searching in internet, books, dictionaries, and encyclopedias ...etc. 2. Also search on how the term used in the ST to make the ability to find the functional equivalent in TL. 3. Produce the term in the TL after all gathering the required information. 4. Ask experts in the related field for revision 4. Prepare for a glossary related to specialized field, 5. Review the translation by professional experts in the related field.

Calque is a useful and repeated feature in the political- nuclear terms, which the translator found it as suitable solution that considers a strict and correct translation, transfer the meaning faithfully, and enrich the TL with a new term and style. Since it transfer the morphological aspects, and denotative and connotative meaning.

Calque illustrated in our texts as following:

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7. Conclusion
 This paper tackled the theoretical aspects of the political-nuclear texts; according to the nature of the text the researcher divided the discussion to two levels; the textual and terminological. Each level had been discussed and the researcher found the appropriate theory for it. The informative text-type from the functional theories considered an appropriate choice for the translator to translate the nuclear-political terminologies, while the operative text-type had been adopted to the text level. In the strategies, foriegnization considered compatible with the requirements of the political-nuclear texts. Also it has found that the intrinsic managing is preferable when this type of texts is translated, due its farness from implying the ideology of the translator which considered inconsistent with sensitivity of the political text in general. In respect to the covert and overt translation, the researcher adopted the style of overt translation, while approve the covert only on the linguistic level. On the other hand, terminology has different strategies to translate it like adaptation, borrowing and calque.

 

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